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BX 9331 .F7 1907 

Frere, Walter Howard, 



Puritan manifestoes 

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The first Admonition (ist edition), (,See p. 5.) 

^j?>roF pa/,^ 

Zhc Cburcb 1bi0tortcal Society ^'^^^ ^ ^^^^ 

Presideni :— The Right Reverend J. WoRDSWORTrtj^Pfji" m C' vVV''''' 
Lord Bishop of Salisbury. ^^--^IliJirf:---^ 

Chairman :— The Right Reverend W. E. Collins, D.D., 
Lord Bishop of Gibraltar. 

Hon. Secretary :—Ke\. Sadler Phillips, Sion College, 
Victoria Embankment, E.C. 




with a reprint of the 


edited by 






BRIGHTON: 129, North Street. 
New York: E. S. GORHAM. 




The Manifestoes reprinted in the present volume are 
essential to any real understanding of the early phases of 
Puritanism. They are so rare that no apology is needed 
for making them accessible in a modern form. 

For want of first-hand knowledge of the Puritans, their 
contentions and their works, many partisans and even some 
historians have tended to represent them in an unhistorical 
light, and to undervalue the reasons that justified Church 
and State alike in its hostile attitude towards them. It is 
high time that this misreading of history gave way before 
a fuller knowledge of the documents. 

These have also a special interest as being early products 
of the secret presses of Elizabeth's day which managed to 
evade the vigilance of the Government and produce litera- 
ture hostile to it under its very eyes. The mystery of 
the production of these Tracts is still only partly solved. 

Merely as a piece of Literature the original Admofiition, 
which is scantily known by a few extracts at present, 
deserves to be known in its entirety. It is forcible if not 
elegant, and characteristically Elizabethan. 

The thanks of the Editors are due to Miss G. Simpson for 
the original transcript of these Tracts. 



Preface v 

Puritan Manifestoes ....... vii 

An Admonition to the Parliament i 

The Letters of Gualter and Beza ..... 40 
An Exhortation to the Byshops to deale brotherly with 

THEYR Brethren ....... 57 

An Exhortation to the Bishops and their Clergie to 

aunswer a little booke, etc. .... 68 

'\>ri.vvalu>. \ A Second Admonition 79 

'^^"^j ■'* Certaine Articles i35 

Appendix: — i49 

I. Bill concerning Rites and Ceremonies, 1572. 
II. Letter of Mr. Speaker Bell, May 20, 1572. 

III. Bishop Sandys to Burghley, April 30, 1573. 

IV. Proclamation of June ii, 1573. 

V. Bishop Sandys to Burghley, July 2, 1573. 
VI. Bishop Sandys to Burghley, August 28, 1573. 

Facsimiles : — 

The Ft'rsf Admonition .... frontispiece 

The Tracts 2 

The Second Admonition 3 


The Admonition to the Parliament of 1572 was the first open 
manifesto of the puritan party; and it marks the point at which 
puritanism began to be a hostile force, determined to do away with 
the existing system of polity and worship in the English Church. 
It is therefore a document which, quite apart from its intrinsic 
value, deserves to be made accessible to students of history. 
Its position and significance may be made more clear by a brief 

The puritan mind was the result of a transplantation, not 
a purely native growth, and though some of its characteristics were 
already latent in the English character, others were new and are 
more French or German than English. The Marian persecution 
drove the advanced wing of reformers into exile ; and they found 
themselves at Basle, Zurich, Geneva, Strassburg or Frankfort in 
circumstances which were to a certain degree congenial, but to 
a very considerable extent unlike what they had left behind. 
They found themselves among reformers who had entirely broken 
with the ancient continuity of church organization, and who were 
in a state of violent reaction against all externals. Both these 
features were no doubt to a certain degree attractive to the 
reforming temper of the exiles : they had seen the hollowness of 
the outward husk when it had lost the kernel, and they had already 
been forced in some degree to regard the ancient church organi- 
zation, which was in possession equally under Edward and under 
Mary, as essentially hostile to their own plans of reform. But 
on the other hand the orderly and constitutional English mind 
shrank from the light-hearted levelling of the foreign revolu- 
tionist; it was not attracted nearly so powerfully as the French 
mind by the clear-cut system and ingenious machinery of the 
Calvinistic church polity ; it had not enough of the German love 
for the interior idea to be able to afford to despise the exterior 
embodiment of it; it had a traditional love for objectivity and 
ceremonial, which had shown itself up to the last in the Englishman's 
unique diligence in attending daily mass and in his unrivalled love 
for external pomp and ceremony both ecclesiastical and civil. The 
exiles were no doubt drawn from that section of English life which 
had most in common with the foreign views: but even among them, 
and even during the brief era of exile itself, there arose differences. 
Under transplantation some absorbed more and some less of the 
foreign characteristics. Thus there arose among the exiles them- 


selves the party that upheld the Edwardine Prayer Book and the 

party that wished to be quit of it. When the death of Mary made 
return to England possible, this cleavage became more not less 
manifest : the soberer exiles were drawn back again towards the 
main body of English reformers, who had not undergone trans- 
plantation ; the others leaned more than ever towards the leaders 
of foreign protestantism ; and thus the beginnings were seen of the 
later division of that school of thought into the puritanism which 
was conformist and the puritanism which was nonconformist or 
ultimately sectarian. 

The division was further marked when some of the returned 
exiles, such as Cox, Grindal and Jewel, became bishops; while 
others, such as Coverdale, lately bishop of Exeter, or Whitehead 
who at the beginning of the reign was scheduled for preferment, 
kept sternly apart and were found soon among the nonconformists \ 
For three years, however, the two sections lived on the whole peaceably 
side by side within the bosom of the Church. The puritan influence 
was working ; it united itself with the wave of revulsion which swept 
over the country when the Elizabethan rule superseded the Marian. 
Beginning in London even before the end of 1558, it spread rapidly. 
While parliament spent the early months of 1559 in making a legal 
revolution, the populace was already carrying it out in practice, 
either pari passu, or even by anticipation. In the summer the royal 
Visitation revealed that the transformation had already been made 
in many places, and made too drastically. Even before the Visitors 
resigned their task to be taken up by the new bishops it had become 
necessary to repress the outbursts of nonconformist revolt which 
took place continually. But the hierarchy was too much absorbed 
by the conflict with the Marians to be able to spare much time or 
strength for the repression of mutiny on the other wing. Puritanism 
worked on almost unhindered. 

The power of the puritan protest was first seen in the attack on 
the externals of worship. Parliament might lay down certain 
requirements for chancels, ornaments, services, &c., but both civil 
and ecclesiastical authority were powerless to enforce them. The 
chancels and churches were devastated, the ornaments burned and 
disused, the services discontinued. All this had taken place before 
the new bishops had had the opportunity of assuming command ; 
and they never acquired sufficient command to recover a great deal 
that puritan iconoclasm had already swept away. Many of the 
bishops and ordinaries were themselves not sorry that the full 
requirement of rubric and statute was admittedly unattainable. 
The famous letter of Sandys of April 30, 1559, seemed to 
foreshadow a revolt against all the legal ornaments'. It was 
only court pressure that brought the prelates up to the point of 
wearing copes : some of them would gladly have forgone even the 

* See Brook, Lives of the Puritans, i. 126, 172. * Parker Corr., xlix. 


surplice ; while the contest raged almost more fiercely about the 
walking dress of the clergy than about their ministerial dress. The 
bishops in their "Interpretations" proposed to insist at any rate 
on the cope and surplice * : but even this was beyond the power 
of such as had will to enforce it. 

With such confusion of purpose in high places it was no wonder 
that in the parishes disorder reigned ; and even those who wished 
to be law-abiding looked in vain for clear guidance how to act. 
In some cases the foreign leaven had worked so rapidly that people 
were already convinced that the adoption of the Genevan model 
was imminent. In 1560, when the parson of Bethersden preached 
at Tenterden, and said that it was not lawful to use the Genevan 
Service, that it was no more justifiable to follow "the Geneva Church 
than the Romysh Church," and that as regarded the ceremonies they 
might rightly rest upon royal authority, he was thought to have spoken 
outrageously ; and his Churchwardens presented him to the Arch- 
deacon at his Visitation ^. 

In such circumstances a Metropolitical Visitation such as Parker 
held in 1560 and 1561 seemed the best device to restore order. 
But even this could not recover the ground which had been 
irretrievably lost, or insist upon the carrying out of the law. It 
could only do something to justify the position of the Church by 
asserting its power to decree rites and ceremonies and the godliness 
of those already decreed^; to restrain the violence of innovation 
and invective which the revolutionary party had let loose ; and to 
prepare for a pitched battle later on. 

The scene of this battle was the convocation of 1563. The 
occurrences of the preceding three years had made it already clear 
that an attack would be made upon the Prayer Book. In the Upper 
House some of the bishops were known to be in favour of drastic 
changes*, while the Lower House waxed bolder and bolder in revolu- 
tionary proposals as the sessions went on. There was indeed no 
chance of carrying the extremer proposals, such as the abolition of 
the clerical outdoor dress and the adoption of a preaching gown as 
the one ministerial dress, the banishment of non-communicants from 
the Communion Service, or the abolition of dispensations : but an 
attempt was made in the Lower House with six propositions. 
These included the omission of the crossing in baptism and the 
making optional of kneeling at communion : they would abolish 
organs and Saints days, and provide " that it should be sufficient 
for the minister in time of saying divine service and ministering of 
the sacraments to use a surplice." This attempt represents the 
moderate policy of the exilic party, and it was very nearly successful, 
being defeated in the Lower House by only one vote *. 

* Strype, Annals, i. a 13. * Visitation Book in Canterbury Cathedral Library. 
' Engl. Ck. (edd. Stephens and Hunt), v. 60 ; Strype, Ann., i. pp. 213, 3 18. 

* EngL Ch., V. pp. 98 and ff. ; Strype, Ann., i. pp. 500 and ff. 

* Strype, Ann., i. 335 ; Burnet (ed. Pocock), vi. 480. 


Narrow as was the majority, the net result of this convocation 
was that puritanism realized that it would not be allowed at will to 
overturn the established order of the Church. It saw that it would 
only be able to have its way by fighting for it, and through an 
organized hostility to the existing hierarchy. Consequently a new 
feature begins to appear in its programme : it opposes now not 
merely the externals of worship, not only the prescript order of the 
Prayer Book, but the government of the Church also. It begins 
to tend more definitely towards a presbyterian form of church 

Meanwhile the externals remained the ostensible cause of dispute. 
The vestiarian troubles carried on the conflict from the end of the 
convocation of 1563 to the great climax of vestiarian trouble in 
1566. The triumph of the hierarchy then in the matter of the 
habits had the effect of forcing back the Puritans on to more 
central contentions. The fight about externals had but been 
preliminary skirmishing, undertaken by both sides in serious 
earnest for the moment because it was to determine the ground 
on which the real battle was subsequently to be fought out. 
Thenceforward the Prayer Book and the episcopal government of 
the Church are the central points of the puritan attack : the 
Genevan Service-book and the presbyterian organization are 
pushed everywhere forward in direct rivalry to them. 

With the shifting of the battle-ground there came also a change in 
the method of attack. In the convocation of 1566 no renewal of the 
conflict of 1563 took place. The puritan attack comes now from 
outside the council chambers of the Church, and not from within. 
It disappears from convocation to appear in parliament : from 
1566 onwards convocation is regarded as hostile, and the hopes 
of ecclesiastical revolutionists are concentrated in the House of 
Commons. The change was significant. Thenceforward the 
Puritans sought to obtain their will by purely civil legislation. This 
was an unconstitutional method of procedure, and it soon brought 
down upon them the wrath of the Queen, as an invasion alike of 
the liberties of the Church and of her own prerogative as supreme 
over ecclesiastical causes. Her view of the situation was logical, 
historical, and constitutional. It was as intolerable that parliament 
should interfere between her and convocation as that convocation 
should interfere between her and parliament. She stood in direct 
relation to one on the civil side and to the other on the ecclesiastical 
side : she assented to acts of parliament on the one hand and to 
canons of convocation on the other. To proceed otherwise was 
illogical and unconstitutional. Therefore throughout her reign she 
set herself to maintain this balance, and to crush all parliamentary 
initiative in ecclesiastical matters and all attempts at intrusion into 
the sphere reserved for dealings between the Crown and the Church. 

Such action, however justifiable, did not improve the temper of 
the puritan party, and could hardly fail to ruffle the House of 


Commons. In 1566 the first of a series of ecclesiastical bills 
initiated by the Puritans in the Commons had passed its three 
readings there, and received one reading in the Lords, when it was 
stayed by her Majesty's special commandment '. The proposal in 
itself was non-contentious, being nothing else than a measure 
designed to give civil status to the Articles of Religion : it was 
moreover supported by the bishops. But the Queen saw the 
danger involved in such a precedent, and stopped it because she 
" disliked the manner of putting it forth V Shortly afterwards the 
parliament was dissolved. 

When the next parliament met in 1571 the forces of puritanism 
were better organized : the leadership had passed to more capable 
and more convinced champions. Cartwright had come to the front, 
and direct attack upon the Prayer Book and the hierarchy had 
become the order of the day. Shortly after the opening of 
parliament in April, the same series of ecclesiastical bills that had 
failed five years previously reappeared, only again to be extinguished 
by the Queen ^ With regard to the bill about the Articles, the 
Queen sent to say that " she liked very well of them and was 
minded to publish them and have them executed by the bishops 
by direction of her Highness' legal authority of Supremacy of the 
Church of England, and not to have the same dealt in by 
parliament *." A fortnight earlier a debate took place on a bill for 
reformation of the Prayer Book, and resulted in the suspension of 
its proposer by the Queen to the great indignation of the puritan 
party. These two encounters, however, only made them look 
forward to the prospect of future victories. 

In the interval of a year that occurred before a fresh parliament, 
further indignation was roused by the enforcement of clerical 
subscription to the Service-book, the apparel, and the Articles of 
Religion. In consequence further plans of resistance were matured ; 
and, as soon as the opportunity off"ered, the parliamentarians tried 
as before to pass their measure subversive of the Prayer Book. The 
parliament began on May 8, and shortly after the opening a bill 
was introduced to legalize the puritan disorders in worship. The 
second reading took place on May 19 ", and the bill was ordered to 
be engrossed. This copy is now extant® and shows the drastic 
character of the new proposals ''. Of the Prayer Book it was said 
that it had a soundness in substantial points of doctrine, but yet 
contained concessions to superstition which the progress of the 
Gospel since had made superfluous. Of the puritan ministers it 
said that they, for the better instruction of their congregations, had 
given up the strict observation of the book and followed the lead of 
the apostolical church and the best reformed churches in Europe 
in conducting the worship. Their grievance was that malicious 

* Parker Corr., ccxxv. p. 293. * Ibid., ccxxiv. p. 291. 

' "D'Enes, youmah, esp. p. 184. * Idtd., p. 180. * D'Ewes, 207. 

'S. P. Dom., Ixxxvi. 45. ^ It is printed in full in Appendix I, p. 149. 


adversaries of the truth prevented these godly illegalities: they 
therefore asked that the Act of Uniformity might be enforceable 
only against papistical services or superstitious use of the Prayer 
Book ; that a minister who was a preacher with cure of souls 
might be set free by episcopal leave to disregard the Prayer Book 
altogether and conduct service as he pleased: and that every minister 
might similarly have leave to pick and choose in the Prayer Book, or 
use the Services of the French and Dutch congregations. 

The Speaker, writing on the day following, described to Burghley 
the long debate which was raised at the third reading of the bill. 
Ultimately, by way of compromise, the House agreed to a recasting 
of the bill, which should remove its objectionable features, but relax 
the strictness of uniformity in accordance with its general purpose ; 
and it was referred to a Committee of eleven ^ 

After a meeting in the Star Chamber on the same afternoon 
(May 20), the bill in an altered form was introduced and read the 
first time on May 21. The new form ^ omitted in the preamble all 
the disparaging passage about the Prayer Book and the account of 
the godly illegahties of the ministers as well as a passage concern- 
ing the favour shown by the bishops to the movement : it enacted 
with little alteration the first two of the points of the original bill, 
but omitted the third ; — that is, it restricted the penalties of the Act 
of Uniformity to those who were popish or superstitious, it gave a 
liberty to the preacher, but none to the ordinary ministers, nor did 
it allow the use of the foreigners' services. 

So far all had gone well, but on the next day, May 22, the guillotine 
descended : for the Speaker signified " her Highness' pleasure, that 
from henceforth no more bills concerning religion shall be preferred 
or received into this House unless the same should be first considered 
and liked by the clergy '." Already however matters were going 
forward which were to exert a stronger power on the side of 
puritanism than bills strangled at birth. 

Hitherto the party of revolution had lacked any clear exposition 
of its policy. The vestiarian disputes had produced a series of 
tracts bearing upon the controversy about the habits; but this 
only was of temporary value, and did not deal with the larger 
issues which had now come to the front. It was this need which 
was now met by means of an Admonition addressed to the 
parliament from which so much help was expected for the puritan 
cause. The circumstances were such that no actual deputation or 
approach to the Commons on these delicate subjects was possible. 
The Queen's firmness precluded that. But a pamphlet might do 
good; and, though cast in the form of an Admonition to the 
parliament, it might be in fact an appeal to the country. Thus 
argued some of the puritan leaders at a private meeting in London 

* See the letter of Speaker Bell, Appendix II, p. 152 ; and D'Ewes, p. 21a. 
' S. P. Dom., Ixxxvi. 48 and see Appendix I, p. 149, notes. 
' D'Ewes, p. 213. 


as parliament time drew near^ The dangers Ot such a project 
were considerable : for the censorship of the press was severe ; and 
formidable was the risk run, both by authors who set their hand to 
such a composition and by printers who secretly disseminated it. 
However, neither the courage nor the craft was wanting for the 

The parliament ended on June 30; but before its close the 
pamphlet entitled An Admonition to the Parliament had appeared; 
and it attained such immediate notoriety that Cooper, bishop of 
Lincoln, preached on the subject on the 27th at Paul's Cross *. The 
sermon has not survived, but its nature may be inferred from an 
answer to the strictures of the preacher which followed forthwith, and 
was spread about in manuscript *. It chiefly attacked Cooper for five 
points: (i) for maintaining an ignorant and unlearned ministry; (2) for 
magnifying the English Service-book ; (3) for defending the ungodly 
titles and unjust lordship of bishops ; (4) for depraving that govern- 
ment which Christ left to His Church ; (5) for wresting and wringing 
of Scriptures from their natural sense and meaning. These theses 
the answerer treated on the lines of the Admonition itself. The 
battle was thus begun at once : but the first interest of all concerned 
was to discover the author of the anonymous pamphlet. On July 7 
two clergy, John Field and Thomas Wilcox, were sent to Newgate 
on the charge of being its writers*; and in conference with 
the Archbishop's chaplain, who was sent to interview them on 
September 11, they admitted that they "wrote it in parliament 
time, which should be a time of speaking and writing freely, justly 
craving redress and reformation of many abuses, for which we are 
so uncourteously treated '." 

The little pamphlet was widely disseminated and universally read 
in spite of the strict censorship of the press. The first edition was 
soon exhausted, and a new edition speedily followed, marked by 
some alterations and corrections : this in turn was quickly reprinted, 
so that on August 25 Archbishop Parker wrote as follows^: — 

"For all the devices that we can make to the contrary, yet some 
good fellows still labour to print out the vain ' Admonition to the 
Parliament.' Since the first printing it hath been twice printed, 
and now with additions, whereof I send your honour one of them. 
We wrote letters to the Mayor and some aldermen of London 
to lay in wait for the charects, printer, and corrector, but I fear they 
deceive us. They are not willing to disclose this matter." 

The secret press was skilfully shielded, for the puritans had long 
held a powerful position in the book trade: and the Admonition, 
far from being suppressed, only grew in dissemination and in 
bulk ; for there were added to the second edition, as Parker noted, 
some additional passages, and there were soon associated with it 

* Bancroft, Survay of the pretended Holy Discipline, p. 55 (London 1593). 
' Ef^l. Ch,, V. p. 94. ' Printed in Strype, Annals, i. 193 and ff. 

* Brook, i, 319. * Ibid., p. 321. • Parker Corr., ccciii. p. 397. 


some additionat ''documents. The original edition had contained 
besides the Admonition two letters emanating from the leaders 
of reform abroad ', written at the crisis of the vestiarian conflict 
of 1566 by Gualter to Grindal, then bishop of London, and by 
Beza to Bishop Parkhurst of Norwich (below, pp. 40-55). At a 
later date, probably after the second edition had appeared, two 
little treatises were put out, both bearing upon the Admonition and 
often found bound up with it: the first of these \% An Exhortation 
to the By shops to deal brotherly with theyr Brethren (pp. 57-68) : the 
preface to this is dated September 30, 1572. The second is 
undated and bears the title An exhortation to the Bishops and their 
clergie to aunswer a little booke that came for the the last Parliament, ^r. 
(pp. 68-78). The two together form one publication ^ 

After the issue of the first edition a little pamphlet was appa- 
rently put forth, either in manuscript or print, intended to show up 
the Admonition in its true light: this was called A Viewe 0/ the 
Churche that the authors of the late published Admonition would have 
planted within this realme of England^ containing such Positions as 
they now hold against the state of the said Church, as it is nowe. 
No copy of this publication is now known to be extant, but its 
contents are ascertainable from the puritan reply which reprinted 
the little pamphlet with a rejoinder. The enemies of the Admo- 
nition merely selected for publication a number of points in it, 
twenty- two in the first part and fifteen in the second. The re- 
joinder dealt with each one in turn under the title Certaine Articles 
collected and taken {as it is thought) by the Byshops out of a title Boke 
entituled An Admonition to the Parliament with an answer e to the 
same (pp. 135-148). It quotes from the second edition of the 
Admonition ; and, as it contains (p. 147) a reference to the Massacre 
of St. Bartholomew's day (August 24, 1572), it can hardly be dated 
earlier than September. 

It was subsequently issued ', though perhaps not for the first 
time, together with the Second Admonition which was written by 
Cartwright in October ^ and published towards the close of the year. 
By this time the official reply to the original pamphlet, which had 
been entrusted to Dr. Whitgift, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and Cartwright's chief opponent there, was already far advanced. 
The first part of it was completed in the middle of September * : 
the second part was all drafted by the beginning of October, and 
was finished before the end of the month* : but the whole work was 
not issued till February 1573''. I^ ^^^Xt almost entirely with the 

* It is possible that the earliest copies issued were without these letters : 
most extant copies comprise them, but there is at least one that does not. 
See below, p. xxviii. 

' For bibliographical details see below, pp. xxviii and ff. ' p. 83. 

* It was after Field and Wilcox had " had the law " (see p. 82), which was 
on October 2. 

» Strype, Whitgift, 43. « Whitgift, Works (Parker Soc. vol. iii.), Letter iiL 
^ Strype, Whitgift, 43. 


original Admonition; but some pages at the close were devoted to 
the alterations made in the second edition, to the series of tracts, and 
to the Second Admonition'^. 

Meanwhile matters had progressed farther with Field and 
Wilcox in their prison. A petition to the Archbishop from their 
wives and children ^ procured for them the visit from his chaplain, 
which has already been mentioned. But the interview, to judge 
by the record of it that the puritans preserved, was not of much 
value, except that it elicited from the chaplain the opinion, similar 
to that already expressed by Cooper, that some of the points made 
in the pamphlet were good ones. Their lot has hitherto been 
uncertain and misrepresented : in fact their confinement was lenient, 
and they enjoyed the visits of many of their friends and admirers '. 

Following the example set by many of their predecessors, the 
prisoners looked to powerful patrons, such as Leicester and 
Burghley, to protect them : and to the latter they had already 
presented on September 3 a formal vindication of their conduct in 
a Latin apology*. At the beginning of October they were 
charged before the Lord Mayor and Aldermen with offences against 
the Act of Uniformity, and condemned to a year's imprisonment ". 
Before six months were past, interest had been made on their 
behalf with the members of the Privy Council who were favourably 
disposed towards puritanism, with the result that on March 20, 
1573) Sandys, the bishop of London, was urged by the Council " to 
bring them to conformity and thereupon to show them more 
favour®." Ten days later he was able to report their good con- 
formity : they were already released from Newgate, and by leave 
of the Council were quartered upon Archdeacon MuUins, so that 
if the bishop was satisfied of their continuance in good order they 
might soon have the Queen's pardon''. The two ministers were 
not slow to press the advantage which they had thus gained : they 
urged the bishop to give them more liberty, and even to set them 
free altogether, or at least to allow them to go to their own homes. 
Simultaneously they were also bringing pressure to bear upon him 
by means of letters from the puritan noblemen on their behalf*. 
But the bishop hesitated to act without further authority from the 
Council, and meanwhile the Archdeacon groaned over his unwelcome 
guests ^ When the year of their sentence had expired they still 
had not obtained their discharge. It is not clear whether they 
were still with the Archdeacon ; but from their place of mitigated 

* Apparently the contents of the reply were in some respects public property 
before it was issued, for on December 20, 1572, the Bishop of Ely (Cox) wrote 
to Burghley, " I hear by reporte that Norton hath or is about to answere 
D. Whitgift's booke. It is said that he hath a printer. It were not amys his 
house were searched." Brit. Mus., Lansd. MS. xv. 51. 

' Brook, ii. 185. * Strype, Parker, 413 ; and W'hitgift, Works, Letter iv. 

* Strype, Ann, II, App., «o. xix, from Lansd. MS. xv. 73. 

* Brook, i. 320. * Acts o^ Privy Council, viii. 90. '' Ibid., 93. 

* See Appendix III, p. 152. * Ibid, and Appendix V, p. 154. 


detention, whatever it was, they forwarded a petition to the Council 
and another to the Earl of Leicester calling attention to the fact 
that their year of imprisonment, dating from October 1572, was 
now expired, and that they had also spent an additional three 
months in prison before conviction \ Before the end of the 
year they are found at liberty and busy with puritan propaganda ". 

Their closing days of imprisonment had been spent in the com- 
position of a further Apologia, which they put forth on being 
set free. One form of it was addressed "unto an Honourable 
and Virtuous Ladie," and was subsequently printed in the collection 
of puritan Ada called Parte of a Register^; another form seems 
to have been current only in MS.* Each of the authors on 
emerging from prison seems soon to have been placed in fresh 
preferment : but in each case persistent nonconformity made the 
tenure very insecure. Field had already in the period shortly 
before his imprisonment inaugurated at Wandsworth a policy which 
subsequently much developed, viz. the plan of establishing a full 
presbyterian organization in their parishes which was to supersede 
the existing Church polity". And as he continued to lead the 
agitation upon those lines it is not surprising that he was continually 
in trouble up to the end of his life ®. 

The success of the Admonition as an appeal to the populace was 
assured from the first : the public was attracted by its lively style, 
felt for the men who seemed to be persecuted, and was indignant 
with those who seemed to be the persecutors. The odium all 
rested upon the bishops. They had been compelled to enforce a 
measure of uniformity of which many of them disapproved: and 
when they did so, the politicians who had compelled them turned 
round upon them, and undermined their authority by secretly sup- 
porting the puritan rebels: while the popular approval of course 
rested for the moment on the side of those who posed as martyrs. 

' Brook, i. 320. ' Ibid., ii. 193. 

^ pp. 528-46, ed. of 1593 (Brit. Mus., 697. f. 14). * Brook, i. 321. 

^ There is some obscurity connected with this time-honoured statement. The 
source of it is Bancroft, Daungerous Positions, p. 43 (London 1593), who says 
as follows : — " Whereupon presently after the said parliament (viz. the twentieth of 
November 1572) there was a Presbytery erected at Wandesworthe in Surrey (as 
it appeareth by a bill endorsed with Master Field's hande, thus : the order of 
Wandesworthe). In which order the Elders' names, eleuen of them, are set 
downe : the manner of their election is declared ; the approvers of them (one 
Smith of Micham and Crane of Roughhamfton) are mentioned : their offices 
and certaine generall rules (then given unto them to bee obserued) were likewise 
agreed upon and described." Field's part in this action is not specified: he was 
certainly in prison at the date named. If this passage is the only justification 
for the statement usually made (and it is difficult to find any further primary 
evidence), the statement is certainly incorrect. On the other hand it is quite 
possible that the statement may rest on other evidence and be true : and that 
the document of November 20, 1572, came into Field's hand and was endorsed 
by him because of an already existing connexion of his with the place and the 
movement, which was anterior to his imprisonment. 

* See further his biography in the Appendix of Diet. Nat. Biog. 


Archbishop Parker keenly appreciated the position in writing to 
Burghley, November 22, 1573 \ "As for the puritans I understand 
how throughout all the realm, among such as profess themselves 
protestants, how the matter is taken : they highly justified, and we 
judged to be extreme persecutors. I have seen this seven year 
how the matter hath been handled on all parts. If the sincerity of 
the gospel shall end in such judgements, I fear you will have more 
ado than you shall be able to overcome. They slander us with 
infamous books and libels, lying they care not how deep '^. You 
feel the papists, what good names they give you, and whereabouts 
they go^. We have sought as diligently as we can for the press of the 
puritans but we cannot possibly find it. The more they write, the 
more they shame our religion; the more they be applauded too: 
the more they be comforted. ..." 

The infection spread with great rapidity to the provinces. On 
April 13, 1573, Scambler, bishop of Peterborough, wrote thus de- 
spairingly to Burghley about his own diocese*. "Vouchsafe. ... to 
looke upon theis sheires of Northampton and Rutland . . . and ayde 
me with your counsaile. . . . Those whom men doe call puritans 
and their fautours . . . are growen apparentlie to neglecte, if theie^ 
doe not abhorre, the devine service sett owte by publique aucthoritie. 
So that in the towne of Overton where Mr. Carleton dwelleth there 
is no devyne service upon most Sondayes and hollidaies accordinge 
to the booke of commen prayer, but in steede thereof ij sermons 
be preached most commenlie by one Mr. Standen and one 
Mr. Kinge, men for their opinions not licensed by me to preache 
at this dale. When they are determined to receyve the communion 
theie repaire to Whiston, where it is theire joye to haue manie owte of 
diuers parishes, principallie owt of Northampton towne and Overton 
aforesaid with other townes thereabowte, theare to receive the sacra- 
mentes with preachers and ministers to their owne likinge, and con- 
trarie to forme prescribed by the publique order of the realme. . . . 
To their purposes they have drawen diuers yonge ministers, to 
whome it is plausible to have absolute authoritie in their parishes. 
In their waies theie be verie bolde and stowte, like men that seme 

^ Parker Corr.^ cccxiii. p. 410. 

" This charge is made not only by antagonists like Parker bnt by friends 
snch as BuUinger and Gualter, who soon found out how untrustworthy puritan 
statements were and how shifty their proceedings. See Zurich Letters, passim, 
esp. for 1566-8 and 1573, 1574. The same complaint recurs constantly as 
the history goes on. The Marprelate controversy and the attacks on Laud at a 
later date are conspicuous instances of the same thing. Egerton, puritan 
though he was, complained of the same fault in Barrow and Greenwood: and as 
puritan literature becomes abundant in the course of the seventeenth century, its 
value as evidence, e.g. on the liturgical practices of the day, has to be regularly 

' The attacks of the recusants upon Burghley had been particularly violent 
ever since the Northern Rebellion of 1570. 

* Lansd. MS. xvii. 27. 


not to be withowt greate frendes. Whoso standeth against them 
theie seeke to molest by som meanes, as latelie my chauncellor ; 
whome by endytements verie much and yett more by clamors and 
reproches openlie in the face of the countrie they disquietted, 
professing not to be satisfied by anie other meanes but by his 
departure owte of the countrie ; which, no double of it, wold make 
well of their syde and for their purpose. . . ." 

A further letter ^ written by Bishop Sandys to Lords Burghley and 
Leicester on August 5, 1573, gives more information as to the 
popularity of the movement a few months later on. 

"These evil tymes force me to trouble your good LL, I do 
what I canne to procure fitte men to preache at the Crosse ; but I 
cannot know their hartes, and theese tymes have altered opinions. 
Suche as preached discretehe the last yeare now labour by raylinge 
to feede the fansies of the people. Selfe likinge hath intoxicated 
them, and the flatterie of the fantasticall people hath bewitched 
them. Bothe seeke dangerous alteration, thinkinge that their state 
cannot be impaired, hopinge that it may be betared. One Cricke, 
chapleyne to the Bushop of Norwiche, muche commended unto me 
for learninge and sobrietie, of late called to the Crosse, there moste 
spitefully inveighed against the ecclesiasticall pollicie now by lawe 
established, confirminge Mr. Cartwright's booke as the true platforme 
of the syncere and Apostolicall Churche. So soone as I hearde of 
this Tragedie I sent a messinger to apprehende him. My L. of 
Canturburie joyned with me therin. And althoughe he was con- 
veighed away, yet we have taken suche order as we dowbte not but 
that he will be shortlie mette withall. 

"On Sondaie last, one Mr. Wake, of Christs Churche in Oxforde, 
who this last yeare made a good sermon at the Crosse, and now 
called to do the like, he made no answer of the recepte of my letter 
as he was required untill he came himself on the Saturdaie ; and 
Sondaie in the morninge being conferred withall both by D. Walker 
and my Chauncellor D. Hammonde, and required to have con- 
sideration of these troubled tymes: and for so much as hir Maiestie 
was in progresse farre from hir Citie of London, that he would 
speake nothinge that should turne to sedicion : whereunto he 
answered. Well, well. Notwithstanding, beinge sett on and provoked 
therunto, as was Cricke before him, by suche as are authors and 
maynteynors of theise newe and seditious fansies, his whole sermon 
was consumed in raylinge against this present state, and affirminge 
to be good whatsoeuer Mr. Cartwright in writinge hath sett downe. 
On Mondaie I repared to the Citie, and so sone as I beared herof 
I sent a messinger to seeke him ; but he was gone owt of the 
Towne on his way towards Oxforde. This man I cannot deale 
withall by reason of the priuiledges of that uniuersitie, and therefore 
must reserue it to your LL. wisdomes to consider of. Such men 

' Lansd. MS. xvii. 43. 


must be restrained if the state shall stand saffe. TruHe my LL. I haue 
dealt so carefully as I canne to keepe such fanaticall spirites from 
the Crosse : but the deceiptfuU diuell enemie to religion hath so 
poured oute the poison of sedicion and so suddenlie changed theese 
waueringe mynds, that it is hard to tell whome a man may truste : 
but by godds helpe I will see that herafter the like fall not owte ; 
prainge that I may haue autoritie from hir Maiestie, as some of 
my predecessers haue had, in hir name to require suche as are 
fittest for that place; most parte refuse to come thither, hard it is to 
gett any, 

"There is a conuenticle or rather conspiracie breedinge in London. 
Certaine men of sundrie callings are as it were in commission 
together to procure hands to Mr. Cartwright's booke and promesse 
to stande in the defence therof unto death. They came to 
Mr. Squire, Master of Baliall Colledge in Oxforde, and required his 
hande ; who refused to give consent therunto. Yf your LL. would 
call him he would fully informe you herof. Yf theise sediciouse and 
tumultuouse beginnings be not mett withall in tyme, they will in 
shorte space growe to greate inconueniences. The citie will neuer 
be quiet untill theese authors of sedicion who are now estemed as 
godds, as Fielde, Wilcocks, Cartwright, and other, be farre removed 
from the Citie. The people resorte unto them as in poperie they 
were wonte to runne on pilgrimage. Yf theese Idolles, who are 
honoured for Saints and greatly enriched with gifts, were removed 
from hence, their honour would fall into the dust ; they would be 
taken for blocks as they be. 

"There be some Aldermen and some wealthie citizens which giue 
them greate and stowte countennances, and persuade what they 
canne that other may do the like. A sharpe letter from hir Maiestie 
would cutt the courage of theese men. Hir Maiesties proclamation 
toke none effecte . . . not one booke broughte in. Mr. Cartwright 
is said to lye hid in London with great respect unto him. . . ." 

The authorities were even less successful in dealing with the 
printers and stationers than with the authors. Parker's letter has 
already shown that a great search was made for them, and the 
pamphlet entitled Certaine Ar licks gives signs of the hotness of 
the chase, which was apparently led by " Day the Printer and 
Toy the Bokebinder^": but without success. The triumphant little 
doggerel signed J. T. J. S. on the title-page did but shroud the 
printers' identity from the eyes of the pursuers ; and the mystery 
is still only partly solved ^ 

Equally little was the success of the authorities in the suppression 
of the literary controversy. As soon as Whitgift's Answer came 
forth, Cartwright attacked it in his Reply to the Answer. This 
appeared within four months (May, 1573), ^^<i ^^^nt over the 
ground covered by the controversy in a more systematic form. 

1 pp. 135 and 148. * See further below, p. xxix. 



A second edition was issued in June. The book passed freely 
among the Puritans, but it was only with difficulty that the Bishop 
of London could lay his hands on a copy in order to extract from 
it points that needed a further reply ^ Once again Whitgift set to 
work ^ upon a Defence of the A nswer, and ultimately produced a 
work embodying the original Admonition, the Answer, the Reply 
and the Defence. It was as he himself said " something bygg " : it 
is for those who have read it through in the three massive volumes 
of the Parker Society to say whether the author was Justified in 
his further statement that he trusted it would not be " tedious to 
any that shall be desyerus to see the depths of this controversy." 

As Whitgift set to work at his second task, in June, 1573, the 
Queen struck at these puritan books by a proclamation '. It spoke 
with condemnation of the "other rites and ceremonies" "of their 
own devices " used by the Puritans, and of the " books under the 
title of ^« Admonition to the Parliament, and one other in defence 
of the said Admonition, the whiche books do tend to no other end 
but to make division and dissension." It further called upon " all 
and every printer stationer bookbinder, merchant and all other 
men of what quality or condition he or they be, who hath in 
their custody any of the said books to bring in the same to the 
Bishop of the diocese or to one of her Highness' Privy Council 
within twenty days." The result was nil. No single copy of any 
of the books was brought in to the Bishop of London, who had 
been the chief instigator of the proclamation, within the twenty 
days prescribed*; and naturally the failure of the repressive measures 
redounded to the credit of the Puritans and of Cartwright, now 
their recognized leader. This lasted, however, only for six months : 
for on December 11, 1573, an order for his apprehension was issued 
by the Ecclesiastical Commission and he escaped from the country ^. 
His Second Reply to Whitgift appeared in two parts in 1575 and 
1577, while the author was still in exile: but this was of less 
importance in the controversy than the Book of Discipline, which 
had appeared in the interval in 1573 ^ This work, published by 
Travers at Rochelle in Latin and almost simultaneously in an 
English dress under the authority of Cartwright, became from that 
time forward the principal statement of the puritan case, while the 
controversy on the subject of the Admonition receded into the 

^ See Sandys' letter printed below, Appendix III, p. 152. 

* Strype, Parker, 419 and ff. ^ Printed below, Appendix IV, p. 153. 

* See below. Appendix V, p. 154, and the letter quoted above p. 15. But 
it is clear that Sandys' report referred to a particular moment and to the City 
only ; and this is too pessimistic for a general statement ; for Stroud said in his 
examination before the Ecclesiastical Commission (November 25, 1573) that he 
had delivered thirty-four copies of Cartwright's book to the Bishop of London. 
This was the second edition ; the rest of the issue had been already dispersed 
when the proclamation appeared. Brook, i. 298. 

* Brook, ii. 146. ® Usher, Presbyterian Movement, -luixa.. 


The pamphlet had done its work : it had rallied to itself the mili- 
tant forces of puritanism and made clear the division between them 
and the older and less uncompromising nonconformists. Bishops, 
like Grindal and Coxe, who had before shown much sympathy 
with puritan aims, were thenceforward found in violent opposition 
to them ^ : and even the old leaders of revolt, such as Humphrey 
and Sampson, dissociated themselves from the new organization 
which the Admonition called into being ^ 


The Admonition as a statement of complaints and remedies was 
an admirably methodical document and unmistakeably definite. If 
its language seems strong and even violent, it must be remembered, 
first that strong language was a normal feature of the controversies 
of that time : and secondly that the subject with which it deals has 
continually given rise to strong feelings and outspoken expression. 
In trustworthiness of statement it compares very favourably with 
documents of its class : and it is singularly free from the distortion 
and recklessness which has often characterized puritan polemic. 
It created a phraseology which was natural and to a large extent 
justifiable at its original appearance, but which soon degenerated 
into convention and cant. In judging of it therefore the reader 
must give it much credit for freshness and crispness, and try to 
divest himself of the weariness which may very likely have been 
engendered in him by later puritan documents which repeated the 
arguments of the Admonition again and again ad nauseam, and 
in a much more tiresome and dreary shape. 

The pamphlet comprised two treatises with a preface " To the 
godly readers " and an epilogue " To the Christian reader." The 
preface at once revealed its anti-episcopal character, and made it 
clear that not merely the conduct but the very existence of bishops 
was attacked. The first treatise claims to set out "a true platforme 
of a church reformed " in sharp and irreconcileable contrast with 
the existing order. The contrast is methodically drawn out under 
three headings, the " preaching of the word purely, ministring of the 
sacraments sincerely, and ecclesiastical discipline." None of these, 
it is argued, is being carried out in conformity with the scriptures ; and 
it is of course taken for granted, for it was the very backbone of the 
puritan contention, that whatever, in things small or great, is not 
expressly commanded by some text of scripture is ipso facto in- 

As to the first point, nineteen instances are adduced in which the 
existing order is said to be contrary to the apostolic Church ' ; and a 

* Zurich Letters, I. cvii-cxii, and Lansd. MS. xv. 5 1. 
' Zurich Letters, i. 293. ' pp. 9-ia. 


demand is made especially for seven pieces of reform \ As to the 
ministry of the sacraments thirteen objections are raised to the Order 
of Communion and several to the Order for Baptism ; while once 
again reforms are demanded to the number of eleven ^. As to the 
ecclesiastical discipline the treatment is less methodical ; but again 
a series of objections is raised, and a series of reforms demanded. 
The principal contention is that the ministry should be triple, con- 
sisting of Ministers, Elders and Deacons, and that these should 
have jointly the rule of the Church. The existing hierarchy and 
the existing disciplinary system is to be not so much reformed as 

The second treatise of the two has a significant title of its own, 
A view ofpopishe ahises yet remaining, in the Englishe Chnrch, for 
the which Godly Ministers have refused to subscribe. To a con- 
siderable extent the same ground is travelled over a second time : 
but the object is different. The writers now show their objections 
to the threefold subscription to Prayer Book, Apparel and Articles, 
which had been pressed upon the clergy by the Commissioners 
since the parliament of 1571. The matter thus falls into three 
divisions. At the head of each the clause is cited to which sub- 
scription was demanded ^ ; and the objections follow. 

Those which are raised against the Prayer Book (article i) are 
voluminous and fall into twenty-one numbered sections. The 
others are briefer. It was this attack here made upon the Prayer 
Book, which especially exposed the authors to a conviction under 
the Act of Uniformity. It brought together the whole array of 
puritan grievances against the system of worship ; and the whole of 
the ensuing century of liturgical controversy added little or nothing 
of importance to this enumeration. 

The epilogue is in the main an apology for the anonymity which 
both authors and printers sought to maintain. 


The two letters which were added by way of appendix con- 
tribute but little to the value of the document from the point 
of view of later generations: but in the eyes of the men of the 
time they were important as adding to the plea the support of 
Gualter and Beza, two of the leaders of foreign protestantism, whose 
names carried great weight. Thus the adding of the letters was but 
a repetition of the tactics adopted at the earlier stage of the con- 
troversy in 1566. Parker had then cited foreign leaders, on the 
side of conformity, — first old opinions of Bucer and Martyr, and at 
a later stage contemporary letters of Bullinger and Gualter *. The 
tables were now turned by this appendix. Beza's letter is the 

^ pp. 13. 14- ' PP- 13-15- 

' pp. 20, 35, 37. * Engl. Ck., V. 1 16, 133. 


more valuable, for it discusses some of the main points at issue. 
He deals with the broad general question as to the relation of 
reform to scriptural precept and apostolic practice, on which point 
he recognizes the existence of two opinions, and himself strongly 
advocates the narrower puritan view ^. He deals also with details 
such as the ceremonial and ritual of Baptism and Holy Communion, 
the baptism by women, the episcopal dispensations, and the royal 
authority in the liturgical sphere. 

The two Exhortations were of no great value except to keep the 
pot boiling, and to show that, though Field and Wilcox were in 
prison, there were others who would take up their cause. The first 
is impregnated with the idea that the sole motive of the bishops in 
all their dealings with nonconformity is to maintain their own 
secular position. The second under a parade of impartiality 
reveals no less partisanship, and was obviously intended to dis- 
credit beforehand the official reply which was known to be in hand. 


The Second Admonition would never have made much reputation . 
apart from the first. .Cartw right. its autho r, was learned, pious and >^f'»^ 
convinced ; but he was wearisome and unconvincing. His treatise 
lacks both method and point ; and thus is in direct contrast with 
the manifesto of Field and Wilcox. He traverses much of the 
same ground, and quotes a good deal from the earlier document : 
but he adds little except a few fresh objections to the Prayer Book 
and of a more puerile type*, together with a certain amount of 
more constructive work, as to the details of the system of Church 
polity which he wished to see adopted in place of the existing 
system. Even this is very clumsily stated and interrupted by 
constant diversions and jerem^iads ^ But the confused character of 
this exposition makes it all the more desirable to attempt to give 
here a summary account of the system proposed, and as far as 
possible in the original phrasing. For otherwise it is difficult now 
to believe that clergy of the Church of England can ever have 
seriously proposed, and even surreptitiously gone about to set up 
such a scheme. This was not, however, in fact so extravagant a pro- 
cedure as it now seems. Already Calvin's order of service had 
superseded the English Prayer Book in some congregations of exiles 
abroad : the same men continued to use it on their return, and 
expected it soon to supersede the English book*. Similarly the 
presbyterian system had long since become familiar to many, and 
its introduction to England seemed to them only a matter of time. 

The main points of the pamphlet may be summarized thus. 

" The ^ persons and causes that are to deale and to be dealt with 

* p. 45. * pp. 114 and ff. 

* See especially pp. 96 and ff., 107 and ff., 118 and ff. 

* p. 139- ' ' P- 95- 


in the church are certaine and expressed in the scriptures . . . first 
you must provide a sufficient maintenance for the ministerie, that in 
every parishe they may have a preaching pastor, one or moe, that 
may only entend that charge." 

" When ^ any parishe is destitute of a pastor or of a teacher, the 
same parish may have recourse to the next Conference, and to 
them make it knowne, that they may procure ... a man learned 
and of good reporte, whome, after triall of his giftes had in their 
conference, they may present unto the parishe. . . . The parish shall 
have him a certaine time amongst them that they may be ac- 
quainted with his gifts and behavioure and give their consentes for 
his stay among them. [One so sent and accepted may not be sent 
away except by a verdict of the consistory : and an appeal lies to 
the conference and to the provincial or national council.] The 
conference . . . shall be certified of the parishes liking ; wherupon 
they shall amongst themselves agree upon one of the ministers, 
which shall be sent by them to the same parishe : and after 
a sermon . . . and earnest prayer to God with fasting ... he shall 
require to know their consent: which being granted, he and the 
elders shall lay their hands on him, to signifie to him that he is 
lawfully called to that parish to be pastor there or teacher. . . ." 

" There '^ are then in the ministery only two sorts of ministers, 
namely, pastors and teachers, which do not differ in dignity but in 
distinction of office and exercise of their gifts. . . . Pastors are they 
that have the oversight and charge of the whole parish, to instruct, 
to admonish, to exhort and to correct by doctrine all and everyone 
in the assemblies or in the private houses of the same parishe, and 
to minister the sacraments. The teacher [or doctor] shall . . . 
onely intend lectors and expositions of the scriptures, save that in 
the consistory of the same parishe and in all conferences of min- 
isters he is to be joined with the ministers. . . ." 

"Let^ no one minister meddle in any cure save his owne, but as 
he is appointed by common consent of the next conference or 
councils provinciall or nationall, or . . . generall of all churches 

" A conference I call the meeting of some certaine ministers and 
other brethren ... to confer and exercise themselves in prophesying 
or in interpreting the scriptures. ... At which conferences any . . . 
of the brethren are at the order of the whole, to be employed upon 
some affaires of the church. . . . The demeanors also of the ministers 
may be examined and rebuked, . . . sondry causes within that 
circuit . . . may be decided. 

" A synode provinciall is the meeting of certaine of the consistorie 
of every parishe within a province, . . . where great causes of the 
churches, which could not be ended in their own consistories or 
conferences, shall be heard and determined: and so shall they 

^ p. 96. 2 p. 98. ' p. 107. 


stand, except when a more general Synode and councell of the 
whole land be, which I call Nationall . . ." 

" A ^ consistorie . . . consisteth first of the ministers of the congre- 
gation. . . . The assistants are they whome the parishe shall consent 
upon and chuse . . . using earnest prayers w^ith fasting; . . . and 
having made their choise, thereafter they shall publish their agree- 
ment in their parishe ; and after a sermon by the minister . . • and 
upon their consent, the minister may lay his handes uppon every of 
them, to testify to them their admission. This consistorie is for 
that onely congregation, and must doe that which they doe jointly. 
[These are they] of whome our Saviour commandeth . , . ' Tell the 
church ' : that shall admonish, . . . shall excommunicate the stub- 
burne . . . and upon repentance take order for the receiving such an 
one in again, . . . yet . . . with the assent of their whole congrega- 
tion. . . . They shall examine all disordered ceremonies used in place 
of prayer, and abolishe those that they find evill or unprofitable, and 
bring in [others]. . . . They shall suffer no lewd customs to remain 
in their parish. . . . These shall receive the information of the 
deacons for the relief of the pore and their accompts. . . . Lastly 
one or moe of these assistants, with one of the ministers and 
a deacon or deacons, shall be those that shall at their churches 
charges meete at the provincial councell or nationall. . . . 

" A ^ Deacon is an officer of the church for the behoofe of the 
poore, chosen to this office by the congregation by such meanes as 
afore is prescribed in the choise of Elders. . . . His office is to visite 
the poore . . . and to certefye the Consistorie, . . . (or . . . with those 
of the Consistorie... certefye the counsell provincial!,) that a provision 
may be levied"; [the deacons are also to distribute and to render an 
account] '. 

At the close of this description * the author gives the ingenious 
and eclectic biblical argument by which a scriptural basis was 
claimed for this novel system. The system has since become 
familiar through its adoption in one or other form by separatist 
bodies : the argument remains as ingenious and eclectic as ever. 

^ p. Il8. * p. 122. 

5 Compare the following Article, the iSth of the 29 which make np Wilcox 
and Field's Confession of Faith. " Wee beleeue that the Churche ought to 
bee gouemed with that selfe same poUicie and order of gouernment which 
OTir Lord Cbriste the head thereof hath thereunto appointed : that is that there 
should be in the Church Pastours to preache the Word, to minister the Sacra- 
ments, to conceive prayers, &c. Doctors or Teachers, that is to say, such as are 
appointed by the Churche, to interpret the scriptures, and to gather and deliver 
doctrines . . . Elders to watch over the lines and maners of the flocke and in 
good order to gouerne the Churche, which God hath committed unto them. 
Deacons to distribute the almes of the Churche as the poor haue neede, and to 
looke to the sicke and weak persons," &c. Parte of a Register, pp. 539 and 
foil. (Brit. Mus. 697. f. 14). 

* p. 125. 



With the Certaine Articles there is a return to the more popular 
and trenchant style of the first Admoyiition. It is not clear who 
the men were that brought out the second edition of the original 
pamphlet while its authors were in prison, and made the con- 
siderable alterations and additions which it exhibits. A few of 
these were already determined as the book went out from the 
press. Two are corrected in writing on the margin in each of 
the four copies of the first edition that have been examined ^ : 
so they may be practically classed with the "faultes escaped" 
noted on p. 7. Others are later and more important, and in several 
cases add considerably to the point — they are in the style of the 
first, and not of the second, Admoniimi — and one might be tempted 
to suggest that possibly it was one and the same hand that penned 
these alterations and the spicy little tract called Certaine Articles, 
were it not for the unconsciousness therein exhibited of the 
differences between the first and the second edition^. 


A number of points of ecclesiastical interest emerge in the course 
of the discussion, and it will be worth while to call attention here to 
some of the more important. The criticism of the Prayer Book 
throws valuable light on existing practice. A full description is 
given of the bowing at the sacred name — " When Jesus is named, 
then off goth the cappe and down go the knees with such a 
scraping on the ground that they cannot hear a good while after V 
Elsewhere we learn that the custom of using service time merely as 
a time for private prayer had not died out in spite of the Royal In- 
junction to the contrary. "Another hath so little feeling of the 
common prayer that he bringeth a booke of his owne : and though 
he sitte when they sitte, stand when they stande and kneele when 
they kneele, he may pause sometime also, but moste of all he 
intendeth his owne booke*." The singing of the gospel and 
lessons was still in use^ The wearing of the veil was insisted 
on in the case of the woman who came to be churched, though it 
was regarded with horror by the precisians ; and later the right to 
insist upon it was tested in the courts ^ The rogation-tide 
procession retained some of its old ceremonies " when banners and 
bells with the prieste in his surplesse, singing gospels and making 
crosses, rangeth aboute in many places ''." At weddings there was 
perhaps still some blessing of the ring, " which they fowly abuse 
and dally withall, taking it up and laying it down." In this case the 

' p. 9 note 2, and p. 11 note 9. ^ £,^. in the first item, p. 137. 

^ p. 29. * p. 115. ' pp. 16,33, 115. 

* pp. 21, 29, 144, and Palmer, Reports p. 296 (London 1678). ■* p. 33. 


Puritans were annoyed because there was no veiP. The funeral 
customs also came in for a special censure, and the cautious prayer 
for the dead which the service involved ^. 

Some of the allusions are not easily explained. Had the Queen 
intervened to stop the closing of churches *? What is meant by the 
sentence about "white coates" on p. 139? What are the "tawnie 
coates " that follow the conceited nobleman's chaplain *, and who 
was it that had expressed the opinion "that fower preachers were 
inoughe for all London ^ " ? 

Of greater magnitude were the three points in which the Puritans 
claimed that the ecclesiastical government was inconsistent with 
itself. First, the visitation articles of the bishops differ from the 
Prayer Book as to the position of the communion table and other 
minor matters '. Secondly, the Injunction prescribing wafer bread 
is at variance with the rubric, which said that it shall suffice to use 
ordinary bread '^. The contradiction here is more apparent than 
real : for the Queen intended by her Injunction to enforce the 
wafer bread and supersede the rubric in virtue of the powers given 
her by the Act of Uniformity ^ The only inconsistency therefore 
lay in the fact that the bishops did not enforce the Injunction every- 
where, but were content to tolerate in many places the use of 
ordinary bread rather than make such a matter into a formal battle- 

Similarly in the third case the inconsistency was more apparent 
than real. The Book of Common Prayer differs, they said, from 
the advertisements about the church vestures ^. No doubt it was 
true, as the Admonition claims, that the Ornaments' rubric was 
still in force ; and in interpreting the rubric to refer to the First 
Prayer Book of 1549^", it was presumably following the intention 
of those who drafted the proviso in the Act of Uniformity upon 
which the rubric was based. But the Advertisements were no 
contradiction to this : they were an attempt in the direction of 
enforcing the rubric : and the only real inconsistency lay in the 
fact that the bishops did not attempt the impossible and uncon- 
genial t?':k of enforcing the whole. 

The terms in which the Advertisements are described are worthy 
of notice in view of the mistaken notion that sprung up later in the 
reign that they had royal authority. The Puritans were under no 
such illusion. The phrases used on pp. 94 and 127 are quite 
colourless ; but on p. 91 they are "the Commissioners Advertise- 
ments" as distinct from "the Queenes Injunctions": on p. 103 
the Advertisements are treated as the bishops' Advertisements, and 
they must also be identified with the scoffing phrase used on p. 144 
" my Lorde of Canterburies laste pervertisements." 

^ pp. 27, 142. "^ pp. 28, 142. ' p. 140. * p. no, 

' p. 23. « p. 94. ' pp. 94, 14, 35 ; cp. pp. 13, 21. 

' Parker Corr., cclixxiii. • p. 94. '" This is clearest at p. 10. 



The two editions of the original Admonition have been already 
mentioned, and it will be clear from the notes of the reprint how 
far they diifered from one another in contents. Their differences 
in typography will be seen from the following descriptions. 

First Edition f. A i. recto is blank ; no title-page. On the 
verso " To the Godly readers," &c. ; at the end of 
the preface come the "faultes escaped." 

Ai. An Admonition to the Parliament. "Seeing that 
nothyng," &c. 

B3. A view of Popish abuses . . . 

Ei. "To the christian reader health," &c. 

Fi. "There be some that will marvel," &c., and the two 
Collation A ' A-D*E^1F*G*GG^ 135 x 80 mm. 

Second Edition, begins without a title-page f. Ai. "To the 

Godly readers," &c. 
A2. IIAn Admonition to the Parliament. " Seeing that 

nothing," &c. 
A8. " A view of popishe abuses," &c. after headline as before. 
Ci. Third Article. 
C3. " There be some that will marvell," &c., and the two 


Collation A-C^D* 135 x 80 mm. 

The following copies of the first edition have been noted : — 

British Museum, London. 

G. 19929 contains the First Admonition (but without the 
Letters and Tracts) and the Second Admonition. 

3932. a. 48. 
Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

8° B. 4. Med. BS. 
Sion College Library, London. 

Arc. A. 69. 5. Ad. 6 (i). 

Of the second edition : — 

British Museum. 854. a. 5, without the Tracts but with an 

incomplete copy of the Second Admonition. 
Bodleian Library. Douce C. 388. 
Sion College. Bound with the above-mentioned copy of the 

first edition. 
University Library, Cambridge. Three copies, (Sayle's Catal, 

no. 5859) one of which has Field's autograph. 
Lambeth Palace, London. A copy in MS. (MS. 519). 


Though the printing is different the type employed seems to be 
the same in both editions. It would seem that it was distributed 
after the issue of the first copies : then set up again for the issue of 
the second edition, and kept standing so that reprints were issued 
as required. 

The two next Tracts made one pamphlet, independent in form 
from the Admonition: the Second Admonition on the contrary had 
the Certaine .(4 r/z'r/^j printed in conjunction with it though separable 
from it. These are in the same type and different from that of the 
two editions of the First Admoniiion ; and a Roman fount is used 
as well as a Gothic. The Tracts form a booklet of twelve leaves 
— collation *^A*|B^C' — ; the preface occupies the two preliminary 
leaves; the first tract begins on Ai and the second on Bi. 

The Second Admoniiion with the Certaine Articles occupies forty- 
four leaves, **A-H^|A*B*; hke the rest it has no title-page; the 
pages are numbered as far as the end of the Admonition only. 
The type seems to be the same as that of the Tracts though the 
Roman fount is not used. See the facsimiles, frontispiece and pp. 2, 3. 

The printers employed have not been fully identified. It is 
usual to say that this group of books was " issued from Cartwright's 
secret press at Wandsworth," or to use some such phrase, which very 
likely is a true conjecture, but cannot be said to rest on any positive 
evidence. The initials J. T. J. S. (p. 135) may contain a clue to 
the solution of the mystery, but they have not so far led to the 
discovery of the secret. There is no doubt that the J. S. who 
printed the second edition of Cartwright's Replye was John Stroud, 
formerly a Minister at Yalding in Kent. He got into trouble with 
the Ecclesiastical Commission for this work ^. This may account 
for two of the four initials : but it is less easy to identify the J. T. 
The names of two other printers are known who were proved to 
have a connexion with Cartwright's books : but the initials do not 
correspond. On Aug. 26, 1573, a printer named Lacy and his secret 
press were seized at Hempsteade and brought up to London. 
Lacy and his companions admitted that they had printed a second 
edition of Cartwright's book to the number of a thousand ^ The 
other printer identified is Thomas Asplyn, who after apprehension 
was discharged and got into worse trouble ^ Thus J. T. still 
remains a mystery, though the identity of source of the later group 
of books is undoubted, for the Second Admonition and the two 
editions of the Replye are in the same type. 

^ Bibliographica, ii. 159, and Brook, i. 298. 

* See Appendix VI, and Arber, Transcr. of Stat. Reg., i. 467-9. 

^ Parker Corr., cccxliii. Nov. 13, 1573. 



It is interesting to note that the Admonition was thought worthy 
of two reprints in the seventeenth century ; it appeared once in 1 6 1 7, 
and once again among the puritan literature reissued during the 
struggle between King Charles and the Parliament in 1644. The 
title and preface of the latter edition is of sufficient interest to be 
reproduced here. 


An Advertisement to the Parliament of England from many 
grave, learned and pious Divines beyond the Seas, in the yeare 
1572 ; declaring the many and grievous Errors at that present in 
the Discipline and Government of the English Church, as also how 
suitable a Reformation now would be : — 

1. To the glory of God. 

2. To the uniformity of all Protestant Churches. 

3. To the satisfaction of all tender Consciences. 
London, printed for Mathew Walbancke at Grayes-Inne gates. 

Anno Dom. 1644^ 



When Constantine began the great worke of Reformation, it was 
the complaint of some who were wedded to the old Idolatry, That 
he brought in innovations of Religion; The like complaints are 
frequent by the blindly zealous of these times, against our worthy 
Patriots, who are purging our Idolatry, Errour, Superstition, and 
Profanenesse, which made many places of this Land as loathsome 
as the Augean stall, and as laborious to cleanse. 

To vindicate the worke of Reformation now in hand, from the 
unjust aspersion of novelty, I here present to thy view the judgment 
of elder times, and their sad complaints against the tyranny of 
Prelacy, and their compliance with the practices of Rome. 

The Authors are to me unknowne ; The worke brought to my 
hand by a pious and learned Gentleman, who was willing to have it 
divulged for the common good. 

The time when this Admonition was presented to the honourable 
Court, was in the beginning of the reigne of Queen Elizabeth of 
happy memory; so soone had these Lordly loyterers fallen from 
their seeming zeale after Reformation, and began to lust after the 
Onions and Garlicke of Egypt. Surely the lopping off branches, 
and neglect to pluck up the root, in the first Reformation, occasioned 

^ The text is that of second edition, as is the reprint of 161 7. 


those fruits of Idolatry and Superstition to come to this maturity 
we have seen them at. I have heard it reported of Bonner, that he 
was very cheerfull when he heard the Reformers had retained 
Prelacy, and some of the Romish Ceremonies, and used this or the 
like expression, " There is no question but if they sip of our broth, 
they will eat our flesh " ; which proved unhappily true. 

Master Beza complaineth in his Letter, at the latter end of this 
Admonition, that whilst men are contented for chaffe and stubble, 
or rather for more trifling things, they regarded not the gold and 
silver, but neglected the substantiall and pretious building ; Truth 
was depressed, errour advanced, piety reproached, impiety and 
superstition practised and countenanced ; Indeed it was lawful! to 
be any thing, onely it was not lawfull to be good. 

The Lord, who hath begun to drive out those profaners of his 
house, perfect this good worke so that there may not remaine so 
much as a print of the hoofe of that spirituall beast in our land. 

W. H. 


It only remains to note the method adopted in this reprint. The 
text of the first edition of the Admonition (with the Letters) has been 
carefully reproduced : the second edition has been collated, and 
its variants, other than those of spelling and punctuation, are given 
in footnotes. The same elaboration has not been expended on the 
other tracts. There is no variation of editions in their case, and 
a careful reprint of one of the copies seemed all that was necessary. 
The copies followed are those in the British Museum : the two 
Tracts are printed from 3932. a. 48. The Second Admonition 
is printed from G. 19929, and the poem prefixed to the Certaine 
Articles (which is not found there) from the Sion College copy. 
Other copies seem to belong to the same edition, but no minute 
and final comparison has been carried out. The arrangement of the 
paragraphs has been suited to convenience. The originals have 
not been followed in the use of i for j, y for i, or u for v, and vice 
versa. Passages have been indented or italicized difl"erently from 
the original in order to make the subject more clear. In the 
biblical references to chapters Roman numerals have been given 
in place of Arabic. In the First Admonition and the Tracts the 
marginal notes of the originals have for the most part been rele- 
gated to the foot of the page. Also in the First Admonition 
references are given in the footnotes to the Parker Society's edition 
of Whitgift's Answer, so that it may be easy to see what was said in 



peace from God.&c. 

Slld}eljat!j alnjaves Cwawbret!)rcn) benefice 
comqjt nature of t!)e SricfecD anb bngooipe of 
tiyp3hiOjX0/t!t)staST^tt}C9 coulDiwuttatoap 
&Ttf) rud)e / a0S»ottU) cttljer butftraptp teUtl)em 
of/ or franlilp. antt freel? repnme tl^ctn ftnr/tije^ 
ntantWl fpnneo anD tngoi>Unrire»*i^bneT coiUa f 
not abioe to beare Isbofcth teU l)tm/ of i)t0 gom3 2 £^am4*§ 
tntoIStTpab^is fat!)er ^auUsconcubme^ »z* 1 
Ahab Ijateti) Michaiah ti}e fonne of 3Imialj/ for I Weg»22«8 
BOtpropberpmgCaBl)efavt^)gool)\)nbbim»*?» ? 
(^c oeople crieo out in Ehyzs tune to f tecr0 ant) <Z?Ia»] o« 1 
|du>pt)ct0/rpeaHe flattenng tl)incts to b£U 3nbt 
tbepriellefl « people of ainatbotl)(tobtc^ foasa 
lorrn about a thte m^les DiftantfromlBeruIalem/ 
»4,anl)bel6scototl)efonneSof2laron)iDtl3CTt3 4 
nriab fwrtbe iauQfarl)«50f buJlife not to pTOpl}CC? 3^oCti» it^ 
tntotljqnmdjcnamcof tbeHoiDe* »6»Micka 5 
teUert>b0 that tl)c people of bis tuite/likeo ioeU 3[(re.ii«2i 
fud)0ropbctfl/a0fcouU)propbecpbntoti}emof tf 
S»mc anb (hong brinfe^^PrtD notable (atljat facing i^lc^a»2» 
tifAmo$» *7*Cb€pI)auebatdbbitntbal rcbufeel* ^♦iti 
tn t}}e s^e : anb ^e^ abl)0]ire tym ^ (peabet^ bp^ f 
tigbtlp*25nb 'iohist. otijer caufc tbere fljuto be S»b? Zmcg 5*1 
rt}ofe two tr eattie0/t!)at 5a ere lately iimtten j im^ 
t»rmteD/tn f lall j^arliament tpmc/iuftip crauina 
a rebjeiTe anblRefotmationot manp abitfosanb 
cotruptton0/petmti7ecngli£b cbutdjremapmna/' 
fl)uU) of To inanp be mtfttiieb/anb f aufbo;t0 tberof 
fi) aueilp entrcteD /f (Iraigbtlp inumfoneQ a0 t^ep 
«rc/cannot of great nobnrsbe gatbereb /bnlcfTeit 
be/for f tiK? fo flatlp ti plamlt> (a© *8 gobs inotbe . ? 
ba«) taught tb5)rap tfjc fault wberetijc fault i0/f .2,tam*'it.7 
ft bnreuerentlp baWcourmoftreuerentfatf)cr0» ire3«i8«tS' 
Strt 31 yra^pouteUme* Ja plains fpcacbeanb ^^aui^^^ 

The Tracts from Brit. Mus. 3932. a. 48 (see p. 58). 


Admonition to the 

Cl)«t(«>ahctJ)elD?refte0/a«t) ti^t^iop^tta/ 
kmco the ^linas/i to aU ^ people/ facing: tl)p£( 
man wfeojtljv^ to D^^ • ft>i tje ^atl)€ v?opV)erpeo 
agapnft fljta Citie/as pee bauebrarb ji»irt) pour 
earc0» Cben fpahe 3B ereinial) Tonto^U the pirn? 
reff/ano to ti^e peopte/Tspms: ^he ilo;De (iitl)e 
fentmetotnop^er(cagatnltt1)t£; boufe/ anoa- 
eamftertjwCitie / dUtl)e t!)mgfir tl}atpee hauc 
qearD* iCberfo?enouje amenOPOurtDapeeantt 
feoiheit / anD beare t\je topcc of tbe lo;6c vour 
^oD /ttjattf)elLo;il)e itiapc repent l)pmof rtje 
plague that !)f!)«ije ptonouiwet) agapntlepou* 
30 foi me/ beljolbe/ 3 am m pour Ijanlie© : Doe 
ijptJ)mtafipcuri)mhe gooti anDrpgbte. "©ut 
bnocoe pee ftiicer tame/ ri)attf pouputtemceto 
Dcatbe/yr e (\)all rureip b;imq innocent blout) \>p5 
on vour friuf0/ anD bpon tbp0 Citte/ anD topon 
tbemhabttants t^etofifo; of a trutbe t1)e iLoiDe 
hatt) fent me \)nto pou/to fpeabe all t^efe ivo^Djef 
m pour eareff* 

The Second Admonition from Brit. Mus. G. 19929 (see p. 80). 

B 2 


Two ^ treatises yee have heere ensuing (beloved in Christ) which 
yee must read without «• parcialitie or blinde affection. For other- 
wise you shal neither see their meaning : nor refraine youre selves 
from rashly condemning of them withoute juste cause. For 
certaine men there are of great countenance, which wyll not 
lightly like of them, bicause they principally concerne their persons 
and unjuste dealings: whose credite is great, and whose friendes 
are manye, we meane the Lordly Lordes, Archbishopps, Bishoppes, 
Suffraganes, Deanes, Doctors *, Archdeacons, Chauncelors, and the 
rest of that proude generation, whose kingdome must downe, holde 
they never so hard : bicause their tyrannous Lordshippe can not 
stande ^ wyth Christes kingdome. And it is the speciall mischiefe 
of oure Englishe churche, and the cheefe cause of backewardnesse, 
and of all breache and dissention. For they whose authoritie is '^ '^,^^ 
forbidden by Christ, will have their stroke without theyr fellowe 
servauntes, yea, thoughe ungratiously, cruelly and Popelike they 
take upon them to^ beate them, and that for their owne 
childishe Articles, being for the moste parte, against the manifest 
truthe of God : First, by experience their rigoure hathe too 
plainely appeared ever since their wicked raigne, and specially for 
the space of these five or sixe yeares last past together. Of the 
enormities, which with suche rigoure they maintaine, these treatises 
do in part make mention, justly craving redresse therof But 
the matters do require a larger discourse. Only the authors of 
these, thoughte it their partes to admonishe you at this time, of those 
inconveniences which men seme not to thincke upon, and which 
without reformation, can not but increase further dissention: the 

' I Thess. V. 21 ; Jam. i. 19, 20; Jam. ii. I. ''Math. xv. 23 [13] ; Luc. xvi. 15. 
•^ Math. XX. 25, 26 ; Math, xxiii. 8, 9, 10 ; Marc x. 42, 43 ; Luc. xxii. 15. &c. 
"* Math. xxiv. 48, 49. 

W. i. 140. * 2nd ed. Universitie Doctors and Bachelers of Divinilie. 


one parte being proude, pontificall and tyrannous : and the woorde 
of God for the other parte expresse and manifest, as if it pleased 
the state to examine the matters, it would be evident. And would 
to God, that free conference in these matters mighte bee had. For 
how so ever learned and many they seeme to be, they shoulde and 
may in this realme finde inowe, to matche them and shame them 
to, if they hold on as they have begonne. And out of this realme, 
they have all the best reformed churches thorowoute Christendome 
againste them\ But in a few wordes to saye what we meane. Either 
must we have"' right ministerie of God, & a right ^ government 
of his church, according to the scriptures sette up (bothe whiche we 
lacke) or else there can be no right religion, nor yet for contempt 
therof canc Gods plagues be from us any while differred. And 
therfore thoughe they lincke in togither, and slaunderously charge 
poore men (whom they have made poore) with grevous faults, calling 
them Puritanes, worse than the Donatistes, exasperating and setting 
on, suche as be in authoritie against them : having hitherto miser- 
ably handled them, with revilings, deprivations, imprisonmentes, 
banishmentes, and suche like extremities, yet is these poore mennes 
cause never the ^ worse : nor these chalengers the better : nor god 
his e hande the further of, to lincke in with his against them : nor 
you (christian brethren) must never the rather without examination f 
condemne them, /^ut thankefuUy take this tast which God by these 
treatises offereth you, and weigh them by the woorde of God, and doe 
your indevoure every one in his ^ calling to promote his cause. And 
lette us all with more ^ earnest prayer then we are wonte, earnestly 
commende it to God his blessing, and namely, that it will please 
him by his spirite, to lighten the heart of oure moste gracious 
soveraigne, and the rest in authoritie, to the benefite of his small 
flocke, and the overthrowe of their proude ennemies, that godlinesse 
may by them proceede in peace, & God his glory thorowe Jesus 

* Math. ix. 37, 38 ; Ephesi. iv. 11, 12. ^ Mat. xviii. 15, 16, 17. 

•= Proverb, xxix. 18 ; Amos viii. 11, 12, &c. ; Math. xxi. 23, &c. ; i Corinth 
xi. 30. 

Math. X. 16, 26. ® Esai. lix. i. 

' Exod. xxiii. 1,2; Math. vii. 1,2; James iv. 11, 12. 

* I Corinth, v. 20 [7] ; I Corinth, vii. 27 [20]. 

•" Psalm 1. 15 ; Math. vii. 7 ; i Timoth. ii. i, 2. 

' 2nd ed. adds " they were once of our minde, but since their consecration 
they be so transubstanciated, that they are become such as you see." 


Christe, be throughly advaunced. Which we call God to witnesse, 
is oure only laboure and sute. And so presently we leave you : 
heartily beseeching God to graunt it. Amen. 

We ^ have to desire thee (Christian reader) to beare with some 
faultes escaped in the Printing of these treatises, thincking it good 
to put thee in minde of one or two, whiche may seeme somewhat 
to obscure the matter : leaving the rest to thy good consideration, 
by diligent reading to be amended. 

In the first leafe of the seconde treatise, page. 2. line 30. in 
steed of first prove, that a reding service, by the worde of 
God. etc. read, first prove by the word of God, that a reading 
service, etc. 

In the second leafe of the same treatise, pa. i. line 11. in 
steede of a full sentence, at, this worde (content) make a little 
pause, and continue the sentence, til the next ful poynt. And 
thus farewell in our Lorde and Savioure Christe. 

* Omitted in 2nd edition. 

If AN 

Seeing ^ that nothyng in this mortal life is more diligently to be 
soght for, and carefully to be loked unto * than the restitution of 
true religion and reformation of Gods church : it shall be your 
partes (dearly beloved) in this present Parliament assembled, as 
much as in you lyeth to promote the same, and to employ your 
whole labour and studie; not onely in abandoning al popish 
remnants both in ceremonies and regiment, but also in bringing in 
and placing in Gods church those things only, which the Lord 
himself' in his word commandeth. Because it is not enough to 
take paynes in takyng away evil c, but also to be occupied in placing 
good in the stead thereof. Now because many men see not al 
things, and the ^ world in this respect is marvelously blynded, it 
hath ben thought good to proferre to your godly considerations, 
a true platforme of a church reformed, to the end that it beyng layd 
before your eyes, to beholde the great unlikenes betwixt '^ it & this 
our english church : you may learne either with perfect ^ hatred 
to detest the one, and with singuler love to embrace, and carefull 
endevoir to plant the other : or els to be without excuse before f 
the majestic of our God, who (for the discharge of our conscience, 
and manifestation of his truth) hath by us revealed unto you at 
this present, the sinceritie and simplicitie of his Gospel. Not 
that you should either s wilfully withstand, or ungraciously tread ^ 
the same under your feete, for God doth not disclose his wil to 
any such end, but that you should yet now at the length with 

"■ 2 Reg. xxiii; 2 Chron. xvii ; 2 Chro. xxix, 29, 30, 31 ; Psalm cxxxii 
2 3, 4; Mat. xxi. 12 ; John ii. 15. 

*" Deutero. iv. 2 ; Deutero. xii. 32. ^ Psalm xxxvii. 27 ; Roma. xii. 9. 

^ I Corin. ii. 14. * Fsalmxxxi. 6; Psalm cxxxix. 22. ' Johann xv. 2i. 
s 1 Timoth. iii. 8. ^ Mat. vii. 6. 

W. i. 175. ^ W. has "between." 


all your mayne and might, endevoir that Christ (whose * easie 
yoke and light burthen we have of long time caste of from us) 
might rule and raygne in his church by the scepter of his worde 

May ^ it therfore please your wysedomes to understand, we in 
England are so fare of, from having a church rightly reformed, ac- 
cordyng to the prescript of Gods worde, that as yet we are not ^ come 
to the outwarde face of the same. For to speake of that wherin 
al ' consent, & whereupon al * writers accorde. The outwarde 
markes wherby a true christian church is knowne, are preaching 
of the worde purely, ministring of the sacraments sincerely, and 
ecclesiastical discipline which consisteth in admonition and correc- 
tion^ of faults severelie. Touching the fyrst, namely the ministerie 
of the worde, although it must be confessed that the substance of 
doctrine by many delivered is sound and good, yet here in it 
faileth, that neither the ministers thereof are accordyng to Gods 
worde proved, elected, called, or ordayned : nor the function in such 
sorte so narrowly loked unto, as of right it ought, and is of 
necessitie required. 'For° whereas in the olde church a trial was 
had ^ both of their abilitie to instruct, and of their godly conversa- 
tion also: now, by the letters commendatorie of some one man, 
noble or other, tag and rag, learned and unlearned, of the basest c 
sorte of the people (to the sclander of the Gospell in the d mouthes 
of the adversaries) are freely receaved. In ' those dales ® no idola- 
trous sacrificers or heathnish priests were apointed to be preachers 
of the Gospel : but we allow, and like wel of popish masse 
mongers, men for all seasons, Kyng Henries priests, Kyng Edwards 
priests *, Queene Maries priestes, who of a truth (yf Gods worde 
were precisely folowed) should from the same be utterly removed. 

* Mat. xi. 31. 

*• Act. i. 12 ; Act. vi. 3 ; i Tim. iii. 2, 7, 8 ; Tit. i. 6. <> i Regum. xii. 31. 

•^ Rom. ii. 24. * Hebr. v. 4; Eze. 44, 10, 12, 13; Jerem. xxiii. 

' W. i. 290. 

* The second edition substitutes " scarse " for " not " ; this word is inserted 
in contemporary writing in the three extant copies of the ist ed. In his Ans7v. 
(iii. 498) Whitgift notices the MS. alteration in his copy ; but, earlier (i. 290), 
he quoted " not scarce." Cp. below (p. 137) "not yet." 

' 2nd ed. " the best." * 2nd ed. " al good writers." 

' Whitgift " correcting faults." « W. i. 396. '' W. i. 317. 

' 2nd ed. omits " Kyng Edwards priests." 


Then » thei taught ^ others, now they must be instructed themselves, 
and therefore lyke young children they ^ must learne cathechismes ^. 
Then ' election was made by * the common <= consent of the whole 
church : now every one picketh out for himself some notable good 
benefice, he obtaineth the next advouson, by money or by favour, and 
sothinkethhymself to be sufficiently chosen. _ Then^ the congrega- 
tion d had authoritieto cal ministers: in stead thereof now, they runne, 
they ryde, and by unlawful sute & buying, prevent other suters also. 
Then no « minister placed in any congregation, but by the consent 
of the people, now ®, that authoritie is geven into the hands of the 
byshop alone, who by his sole authoritie thrusteth upon them such, 
as they many times aswel for unhoriest life, as also for lacke of 
learning, may, & doe justly dislike. Then '^, none admitted to the 
ministerie, but ^ a place was voyde before hand, to which he should 
be called : but nowe ', bishops (to whom the right of ordering 
ministers doth at no hand appertaine) do make 60, 80, or a 100 
at a clap, & send them abroad into the cuntry lyke masteries 
men. Then^, after just tryal and vocation they were admitted to 
their function, by laying on of the hands of the company of 
the 8 eldership onely: now ther is (neither of these being loked unto) 
required an albe", a surplesse", a vestiment, a pastoral staffe, beside 
that ridiculus, and (as they use it to their newe creatures) blasphe- 
mous saying, receave the holy gost. Then" every pastor^ had 
his flocke, and every ^^ flocke his shepheard, or els' shepheards: 
Now they doe not onely run fyskyng from place to place (a miserable 
disorder in Gods church) but^^ covetously joine living to living, 
making shipwracke * of their owne consciences, and being but one 

* 1 Timoth. iv. 11. 

'' Ministers of London enjoined to learne M. Nowel's Catechisme. 

■■• Act. i. 26. ^ Act. vi. 2, 3. ^ Act. xiv. 13 [23] ; 2 Corinth, viii. 19. 

^ Act. i. 25. ^ I Timoth. iv. 14. 

^ Act. XX. 28 ; Ephesi. iv. 11 ; Titus i. 5 ; i Petri v. 2. ' Act. xiv. 23. 

" Esai. V. 8. * I Timoth. i. 14. 

' W. i. 336. 

- and ed. adds "and so first they consecrate them and make them ministers, 
and then they set them to scole." 

' W. i. 339. * 2nd ed. " by the Elders with the common consent." 

» W. i. 340. ' W. i. 425. ^ W. i. 469. « W. i. 485. 

^ W. i. 487. '0 2nd ed. omits " an albe." 

" 2nd ed. adds in margin " These are required by their Pontificall." 
" W. i. 491. " W. i. 588. 


shepherd (nay, wold to God they were shepheards and not wolves) 
have many flockes. Then ^ the ministers wer * preachers : now 
bare readers. And ^ yf any be so well disposed to preach in their 
owne charges, they may not, without my Lords licence. In ^ those 
dayes knowne » by voice, learning and doctrine : now they must be 
discerned from other by popish and Antichristian apparel, as cap, 
gowne, tippet, etc. Then *, as God gave utterance ^ they preached 
the worde onely : now they read homilies, articles, injunctions, etc. 
Then * c jt was paineful : now gaineful d. Then poore and igno- 
minious^: now rich & glorious. And^ therfore titles, livings, 
and offices by Antichrist devised are geven to them, as Metropolitane, 
Archbishoppe, Lordes grace, Lorde Bishop, Suffragan, Deane, 
Archdeacon, Prelate of the garter, Earle, Countie Palatine, Honor, 
High commissioners. Justices of peace and Quorum, etc. All which, 
together with their offices, as they are strange & unheard of in 
Chrystes church, nay playnely e in Gods word forbidden : So are 
they utterlie with speed out of the same to be removed. Then ^ 
ministers were not tyed ® to any forme of prayers invented by man ^^ 
but as the spirit f moved them ", so they powred ^^ forth hartie suppli- 
cations to the Lorde. Now they are bound of necessitie to as 
prescript order of service, and booke of common prayer in which ^' 
a great number of things contrary to Gods word are contained, as 
baptism ^ by women, private » Communions '*, Jewish k purifyings, 

* Philip, ii. 20, 25 ; Coloss. i. 7 ; Luc. ix. 2, 

* i Samuel ix. 28 [18] ; Math. xxvi. 48 ; Math. xxvi. 73. 

'' Johann vi. 38 ; Johann xii. 49 ; i Corinth, xi. 33. " i Timoth. iii. i. 

■* Philip, iv. II ; 2 Cor. vi. 4, viii. 10. 

* Math, xxiii. 11,12; Luc. xxii. 25 ; i Corinth, iv. I ; i Petri v. 2, 3. 
' Rom. viii. 26 ; i Timo. i. 2. 

5 Damasus the first inventer of this stufTe. Wei furthered by Gregory the 7. 
" Mat. xxviii. 19 ; i Corinth, xiv. 35. The first appointer hereof was Victor 1 
Anno. 198. 

' I Corinth, xi. 18. ^ Act. xv. 10. 

' W. i.538. * W. i. 544. ' W. ii. 29. 

♦ W. ii. 74. * W. ii. 77. 

» and ed. adds " in the eies of the world." ^ W. ii. 79. 

» W. ii. 466. 

' 2nd ed. "so tied to any one form." "So" is written in margin of the 
three first-edition copies, as in the case of " scarse " mentioned above, p. 9. 
'" 2nd ed. omits "invented by man." 
" 2nd ed, adds " and as necessitie of time required." 
1' 2nd ed. "might powre." '^ W. ii. 495. '* W. ii. 540. 


observing » of holydayes ^ etc, patched (if not all together, yet the 
greatest peece) out of the Popes portuis. Then ^ feedyng the flocke 
diligently'^: now teaching quarterly. Then preaching ^^ in season 
and out of season : now once in a month is thoght ' sufficient, if 
twice, it is judged a worke of supererogation. Then * nothing taught 
but Gods word, Now Princes pleasures, mennes devices, popish 
ceremonies, and Antichristian rites in publique pulpits defended. 
Then they ^ sought them, now they seeke theirs. 
^^ These ', and a great meanie other abuses ar in the ministerie 
remainyng, which unlesse they be removed and the truth brought 
in, not onely Gods justice shal be powred forth, but also Gods 
church in this realme shall never be builded. For if they which 
seeme to be workemen, are no workemen in deede, but in name, 
or els worke not so diligently & in such order as the workemaster 
commaundeth, it is not onely unlikely that the buildyng shall go 
forwarde, but altogether impossible that ever it shal be perfited. 
The way therfore to avoid these inconveniences, and to reforme 
these deformities is this: Your wisedomes have to remove Advousons, 
Patronages, Impropriations, and bishoppes authoritie, claiming to 
themselves therby right to ordayne ministers, and to bryng in that 
old and true election, which was accustomed to be ® made by the 
congregation. You must displace those ignorant and unable 
ministers already placed, & in their rowmes appoint such as both 
can, and will by Gods asistance^ feed the flock. You must 
plucke downe & utterly overthrowe without hope of restitution, the 
courte of Faculties, from whence not only licences to enjoy many 
benefices, are obtained, as Pluralities, Trialities, Totquots, etc, but 
al thinges for the most parte, as in the courte of Rome are set on 
sale, licences to marrie, to eat fleshe in times prohibited, to lie from 
benefices and charges, and a great number besyde, of such lyke 
abominations. Appoint to every congregation a learned & 
diligent preacher. Remove homilies, articles, injunctions, a * pre- 
script order of service made out of the masse booke. Take 

' Exod. XX. 9. '' I Petri v. 2. "1 Timoth. iv. a. 

** Philip, ii. 20, 21. * Act. i. 26, vi. 2, 3, xiv. 13. 

* I Pet. V. 2. 

» W. ii. 559, 565. ' VV. iii. i. 

=* 2nd ed. adds "of some." * \V. iii. 7. ' W. iii. 8. 

' 2nd ed. "& that." 



away the Lordship, the loyteryng, the pompe, the idlenes, and 
livinges of Bishops, but yet employ them to such ends as they 
were in the olde churche apointed for. Let a lawful and a godly 
Seignorie loke that they preach, not quarterly or monthly, but 
continually : not for fylthy lucre sake, but of a ready mynde. So 
God shal be glorified, your consciences discharged, and the flocke 
of Christ (purchased » with his owne blood) edified. 

Now ^ to the second point, which concerneth ministration of ^J- 
Sacraments. In the olde time, the worde was^ preached, before 
they were ministred : now it is supposed to be sufficient, if it be 
read. Then, they wer ministred in publique ° assemblies, now in 
private houses. Then d by ministers only, now by midwives, and 
Deacons, equally. But because in treating of both the sacraments 
together, we should deale confusedly : we wyll therefore speake of 
them severallie. And fyrst for the Lordes supper, or holy com- 

They ' had no introite, for Celestinus a pope broght it in, aboute 
the yeare 430. But we have borrowed a peece of one out of the masse 
booke. They read no fragments of the Epistle and Gospell : we use 
both. The ' Nicene crede * was not read in their Communion : we 
have it in oures. Ther was then ", accustumed to be an examination of 
the communicants, which now is neglected. Then ' they ministred 
the Sacrament with common e and usual bread : now with wafer 
cakes, brought in by Pope Alexander, being in forme, fashion and 
substance, lyke their god of the alter. They '' receaved it f sitting : 
we kneelyng, accordyng to Honorius Decree. Then' it was delivered 
generally, & in definitely, Take ye s and eat ye : we perticulerly 
and singulerly. Take thou, and eat thou. They used no other 
wordes but such as Chryste lefte : We borrowe from papistes. The 
body of our Lorde Jesus Chryst which was geven for thee, &c. 
They had no Gloria in excelsis in the ministerie of the Sacrament 

* Act. XX. 38. ^ Math. iii. 13 [i]. " Marc i. 5 ; i Corinth, xi. 18. 

* Math, xxviii. 19; i Corinth, iv. i. 

* Act. ii. 46 ; Act. xx. 7. 
' Math. xxvi. 20; Marc xiv. 18 ; Luc. xxii. 14 ; Johann. xiii, 28. 

* Math. xxvi. 26; Marc xiv. 12 ; i Corinth, xi. 24. 

^ W. iii. 14. ' W. iii. 73. » W. iii. 74. 

* 2nd ed. adds in the margin " Note, that we condemn not the doctrine con- 
teined therein." 

• W. iii. 78. « W. iii. 82. ^ ^v_ jij^ gS. « W. iii. 97. 


then, for it was put ^ to afterward. We have now. They toke it 
with conscience. We with custume. They shut men by reasen 
of their b sinnes, from the Lords Supper. We thrust them in their 
sinne to the Lordes Supper. They^ ministred the Sacrament 
plainely. We pompously, with singing, pypyng, surplesse and cope 
wearyng. They simply as they c receeved it from the Lorde. We, 
sinfuUye, mixed with mannes inventions and devises. And as for 
Baptisme, it was enough with them, if theyii had water, and the 
partie to be baptised faith, and the minister to preach the word 
and minister the sacraments. 

Nowe ^ we must have surplesses devised by Pope Adrian, inter- 
rogatories ministred to the infant, godfathers and Godmothers, 
brought in by Higinus ^ holy fonts invented by Pope Pius, crossing 
and suche like peces of poperie, which the church of God in the 
Apostles times never knew (and therfore not to be used) nay 
(which we are sure of) were and are mannes devises, broght 
in long after the puritie of the primative church. To * redresse 
these, your wisedomes have to remove (as before) ignorant ministers, 
to take awai private communions and baptismes, to enjoyne 
Deacons and Midwives not to meddle in ministers matters, if 
they doe, to see them sharpelie punished. To joyne assistance of 
Elders, and other officers, that seing men wyl not examine them- 
selves, they may be examined, and brought to ^ render a reason of 
their hope. That the statute against waffer cakes may more 
prevaile then an Injunction. That people be apointed to receave 
the Sacrament, rather sitting, for avoydyng of superstition, than 
kneelyng, havyng in it the outwarde shewe of evyl, from^ which we 
must abstaine. That Excommunication be restored to his olde 
former force. That papists nor other, neither constrainedly nor 
customably, communicate in the misteries of salvation. That both 
the Sacrament of the Lordes supper and Baptisme also, may be 
ministred according to the ancient puritie & simpHcitie. That 
the parties to be baptised, if they be of the yearesK of discretion, 
by themselves & in their owne persons, or if they be infants, 

* Telesphorus in Anno 130. 

*> I Corinth. V. II. "= 1 Corinth, xi. 23. * Acts viii. 35, 36, 37 ; Act. x. 47. 

• I Co. xi. 28 ; I Petri, iii. 15. ' i Thessal. v. 23. ^ Math. iii. 6. 

^ W. iii. 106. ^ W. ii. 47. ' anded. omits " godfathers. . . Higinus." 
* W. iii. 132. 


by their parents (in whose rowme if upon necessarye occasions 
& businesses they be absent, some of the congregation knowing 
the good behaviour and sound faith of the parents) may both 
make rehearsal of their faith, And also if their faith be sound, and 
agreable to holie scriptures, desire to be in the same baptised. 
And finally, that nothing be don in this or ani other thing, but 
that which you have the expresse warrant of Gods worde for. 

Let ^ us come now to the third parte, which concerneth eccle- 
siastical discipline. The officers that have to deale in this charge, 
are chiefly three ministers preachers or pastors of whom before. 
Seniors or Elders, and Deacons. Concerning Seniors, not onely 
their office but their name also is out of this english church utterly 
removed. Their office was to * governe the church with the rest 
of the ministers, to consulte, to admonish, to correct, and to order 
all thinges apperteigning to the state of the congregation. In steed ' 
of these Seniors in ^ every church, the pope hath brought in and 
we yet maintaine, the Lordship of one man over many churches, 
yea over sundrie Shieres. These ^ Seniors then, because their 
charge was not overmuch *, did execute their offices in their 
owne persones without substitutes. Our Lords bishops have 
their under officers, as Suffraganes, Chancelours, Archdeacons, 
Officialles, Commissaries, and such lyke. Touchyng^ Deacons, 
though their names be remaining, yet is the office fowlie per- 
verted and turned upside downe, for their dutie in the primative 
church, was to ^ gather the almes diligently, and to distribute it 
faithfully, also for the sicke and impotent persones to provide 
painefully, having ever a diligent care, that the charitie of godly 
men, wer not wasted upon loiterers ^ and idle vagabounds. Now ' 
it is the first step to the ministerie, nay, rather a mere order of 
priesthode. For ® they '' may baptise in the presence of a bishop 
or priest, or in their absence (if necessitie so require) minister the 
other Sacrament, likewise read the holy Scriptures and homilies 
in the congregation, instructe the youth in the Cathechisme, and also 
preach, if he be commanded by the bishop. Agayne ', in the olde 

* Act. xiv. [xv] 4 ; i Cor. xii. 28. 

•• Rom. xii. 8. « Rom. xii. 8. ''2 Thessal. iii. 10. 

* Pontifi. tit. The ordering of deacons. 

' W. iii. 156, 320. * W. iii. 161, * W.iii. 269. 

* 2nd ed. omits " because their charge was not overmuch." 

» W. iii.61-281. « W. iii. 68. T W. iii. 391. ' W.iii. 286. 


church every* congregation had their Deacons. Now^ they are 
tied to Cathedrall churches onely, and what doe they there ? gather 
^ the almes and distribute to the poore ? nay, that is the least peece or 
rather no parte of their function. What then ? to sing a gospel when 
the bishop ministreth the Communion. If this be not a pervert- 
yng of this office and charge, let every one judge. And "^ yet least 
the reformers of our time should seeme utterly to ^ake out of Gods 
Church this necessarie function, they appoint somewhat to it 
concerning the poore, and that is, to search for the sicke, needy, 
and impotent people of the parish, and to intimate their estates, 
names, and places where they dwell to the Curate, that by his 
exhortation they may be relieved by the parysh, or other con- 
venient almes. And this as you see, is the nighest parte of his 
office, and yet you must understand it to be in suche places where 
there is a Curate and a Deacon : every parish can not be at that 
cost to have both, nay, no parish so farre as can be gathered, at 
this present hath. Now then, if you wyl restore the church to his 
ancient officers, this you must doe. In stead ' of an Archbishop or 
Lord bishop, you must make ^ equalitie of ministers. In stead of 
Chancelours, Archdeacons, Officialles, Commissaries, Proctours, Doc- 
tors ^, Summoners, Churchwardens, and such like : you have to 
plant in every congregation a lawful and godly seignorie. The' 
Deaconship c must not be confounded with the ministerie, nor the 
Collectours for the poore, maye not usurpe the Deacons office : But 
he that hath an<i office, must looke to his office, and every man muste 
kepe himselfe within the boundes and limmits of his owne vocation. 
And '' to these three jointly, that is, the Ministers, Seniors, and 
I deacons, is the whole regiment of the church to be committed. 
This® regiment consisteth especially in ecclesiastical discipline, which 
is an order left by God unto his church, wherby men learne to 
frame their wylles and doyngs accordyng to the law of God, by e 
instructing and admonishing one another, yea and by correcting 
and punishing all wylfull persones, and contemners of the same. 
Of this discipline there is two kyndes, one private, wherwith we 

' Philip, i. I ; Johann. xiii. 27 ; Act. vi. 5 ; i Timoth. iii. 8. 

» 2 Corin. x. 7 ; Coloss. i. i.— ' [Phil. i. i. i Th. i. i]. " i Tim. iii. 8. 

* Rom. xii. 7; i Corinth, vii. 20. ^ Jam. v. 16 ; Mat. xviii. 15, 16, 17. 

1 W, iii. 288. » W. iii. 290. ' W.iii. 153. 

• 2nd ed. adds " Philip, i. i ; i Thes. i. i." * 2nd ed. omits " Doctors." 

« W. iii. 290. '' W. iii. 295, ' W. iii. 233. 


wyl not deale because it is impertinent to our purpose, an other 
publique, which although it hathe bene long banished, yet if it 
might now at the length be restored, wolde be very necessarie 
and profitable for the building up of Gods house. The final end 
of this discipline, is the reforming of the disordered, and to bryng 
them to repentance, and to bridle such as wold offend. The 
chieffest parte and last punishment of this discipline is excom- 
munication, by the consent of the church determined, if the offender 
be obstinate, which how miserably it hath ben by the Popes 
proctours, and is by our new Canonists abused, who seeth not ? 
In the primative church it was in * many mennes handes : now , . 
one alone excommunicateth. In those days it was the last censure y/* 
of the church, and never went forth but for ^ notorious crimes : 
Now it is pronounced for every light trifle. Then excommunica- 
tion was greatly regarded and feared. Now because it is a money 
matter, no whit at al estemed. Then for c great sinnes, severe 
punishment, and for smal offences, Kttle censures \ Now great 
sinnes eyther not at al punished, as ^ blasphemy, e u sury "^j etc, or 
else sleightly passed over with pricking in a blanket, or pinning in 
a sheet, as f adulterie, whoredome, drunkennes, etc. Againe ^, suche 
as are no sinnes (as if a man conforme not himself to popysh orders 
and ceremonies, if he come not at the whistle of him, who hath 
by Gods worde no authoritie to cal, we meane Chancelors, Officials, 
Doctors •*, and all that rable) are grevously punished, not only by 
excommunication, suspention, deprivation and other (as they terme 
it) spiritual coertion, but also by banishyng, imprisonyng, revyling, 
taunting, and what not ? Then ^ the sentence was tempered accord- 
yngg to the notoriousnes of the facte. Now on the one side 
either hatred against some persones, caryeth men headlong into 
rash and cruell judgement : or els favoure, affection, or money, 
mitigateth the rigour of the same, and al this cometh to passe, 
because the regiment lefte of Christ l^ to his church, is committed 

* I Cor. V. 4. ^ I Cor. v. 1 1; 2 Thessal. iii. 14. " i Tim. i. 20; i Corin. v. 
^ Levi. xxiv. 14, 16 ; Num. xv. 34, &c. ® Deutro. xxiii. 19, 20. 

^ Leviti. XX. 10; Deutero. xxii. 22. ^ i Tim. i. 20. 

^ Math, xviii. 17; 1 Cor. xii. 28; Rom. xii. 8; i Timo. v. 17; Act xv. 1, 
4, vi. 22, 23. 

^ 2nd ed. has " censures according." 

* 2nd ed. inserts " drunkennesse " here. ' W. ii. 224. 

* and ed. omits " Doctors." ' W. iii. 206. 



into one mannes hands, whom alone it shal be more easie for 
the wicked by bribing to pervert, than to overthrow the faith and 
])ietie of a zealous and godlie companie, for such manner of men 
in deede ^ shoulde the Seigniors be. Then ^ it was said tell ^ the 
church : now it is spoken, complaine to my Lords grace, primate 
and Metropolitane of al England, or to his inferiour, my Lord Bishop 
of the diocesse, if not to him, shew the Chancelor or Officiall, 
or Commissarie or Doctor.^ Againe,' whereas the excommunicate 
were never receaved tyll they had ° publikely confessed their offence. 
Now for paying the fees of the court, they shal by master Officiall, 
or Chancelour, easely be absolved in som private place. Then 
the congregation, by the wickednes of the offendour grieved, was 
by his publique penance satisfied. Now absolution shal be pro- 
nounced, though that be not accomplished. Then the partie 
offendyng should in his owne person, heare the sentence of 
Absolution pronounced. Now, Bishops, Archdeacons, Chancelors, 
Officials, Commissaries and such lyke, absolve one man for another. 
And this is that order of ecclesiastical discipline which all godly 
wish to be restored, to the end that every one by the same, may 
be kept within the limmits of his^ vocation, and a great number 
be brought to live in godly conversation. Not * that we meane to 
take away the authoretie of the civill ^ Magistrate and chief govern- 
our, to whome we wish all blessednes, and for the encreace ot 
whose godlines we daylyf pray: but that Christ being restored 
into his kyngdome, to rule in the same by the scepter of his worde, 
and severe discipline : the Prince may be better obeyed, the realme 
more florish in godlines, and the Lord himself more sincerely 
and purely according to his revealed wil served then heretofore 
he hath ben, or yet at this present is. Amend ^ therfore these 
horrible abuses, and reforme Gods church, and the s Lorde is on 
your right hand, you shall not be removed for ever. For he wyl 
deliver and defend you from all your enemies, either at home or 
abroad, as he did faithfuU Jacob ^ & good i Jehosaphat. Let 
these things alone, and God is a righteous judge, he wyl one day 

' Exod. xviii. 21 ; Deut. i. 13. *" Mat. xviii. 17. « 2 Corinth, ii. 7. 
^ I Corinth, vii. 20. ® Rom. xiii. * i Timoth. ii. 2. ^ Psalm xvi. 8. 
•^ Genes, xxxv. 5. ' 2 Chronic, xvii. 10. 

* W. iii. 228. ' 2nd ed. omits " or Doctor." ' W. iii. 231. 

* W. iii. 231. ' W. iii. 232. 


cal you to your reckonyng. Is^ a reformation good for France? 
and can it be evyl for England ? Is discipline meete for Scotland ? 
and is it unprofitable for this Realme ? Surely God hath set these 
examples before your eyes to encourage you to go foreward to 
a thorow and a speedy reformation. You may not do as hereto- 
fore you have done, patch and peece, nay rather goe backeward, 
and never labour or ^ contend to perfection. But altogether remove 
whole Antichrist, both head body and branch ^ and perfectly plant that 
puritie of the word, that simplicitie of the sacraments, and severitie 
of discipline, which Christ hath commanded, and commended to 
his church. And here * to end, we desire all to suppose that we 
have not attempted this enterprise for vaineglorie, gayne, preferment, 
or any other worldly respect : neither yet judging our selves, so 
exactly to have set out the state of a church reformed, as that 
nothyng more coulde be added, or a more perfect forme and 
order drawen : for that were great presumption, to arrogate so 
much unto ourselves, seeing that as we are but weake and simple 
soules, so God hath raised up men of profound judgement & 
notable learning. But therby to declare our good wylles to- 
ward the settyng forth of Gods glorie, and the buildyng up of his 
church, accoumpting this as it were, but an entrance into further 
matter, hoping that our God, who hath in us begonne this good 
worke ^, will not onely in time hereafter make us strong and able 
to go foreward therin : but also move other, upon whome he 
hath bestowed greatter measure of his gyftes and graces, to labour 
more thorowlie and fullie in the same. 

The ^ God of all glorie so open your eyes to see his truth, that 
you may not onely be inflamed with a love thereof, but with 
a continuall care seeke to promote, plant, and place the same 
amongst us, that we the English people, and our posteritie, enjoy- 
eng the sinceritie of Gods gospel for ever, may say alwayes : The 
Lorde be praysed. To whome with Chryst Jesus his sonne our 
onely saviour, & the Holy gost our alone comfortor, be honour, 
prayse, and glorie, for ever and ever. Amen. 


' Heb. vi. r. b Philip, i. 6. 

^ W. iii. 314. * 2nd ed. omits this reference. 

' and ed. has " head and taile." * W. iii. 317. * W. iii. 318 

C 2 


A ^^Ew OF Popishe abuses yet remaining in the Englishe 
Church, for the which Godly Ministers have refused 
TO subscribe. 

Ahyde patiently the Lordes leasure. Cast thy care upon the Lorde, 
and he will bring it to passe, he will do it. 

The jeopardous time is at hand, that the wrath of God shall be 
declared from heaven uppon all ungodlynesse of those seducers that 
witholde the truth in unrighteousnesse, and set his commaundementes 
at naught, for their owne traditions. 

Whereas ^ immediatly after the laste Parliament, holden at West- 
minster, begonne in Anno. 1570, and ended in Anno. 1571. the 
ministers of Gods holy word and sacramentes, were called before 
her Majesties highe commissyoners, and enforced to subscribe unto 
the articles, if they woulde kepe their places and livings, and some 
for refusyng to subscribe, were unbrotherly and uncharitably in- 
treated, and from their offyces and places removed : May it please 
therefore this honourable and high courte of Parliament, in considera- 
tion of the premisses, to take a view of such causes, as then did 
withholde, & nowe doth the foresaid ministers from subscribing 
and consenting unto those forsaid articles, by way of purgation 
to discharge themselves of all disobedience towards the church 
of God and their soveraigne, and by way of most humble intreatie, 
for the removing away and utter abolishing of all suche corruptions 
and abuses as withheld them, through which this long time 
brethren have bene at unnaturall warre and strife among themselves, 
to the hinderance of the gospel, to the joy of the wicked, and to 
the grefe and dismay of all those that professe Christes religion, & 
laboure to attain Christian reformation. 

The fyrst Article. 

Firste, that^ the booke commonly called the booke of 

common prayers for the churche of England, aucthorised by 

Parliament, and all and every the contentes therin be suche as 

are not repugnante to the worde of God. 

Albeit, righte honourable and dearly beloved, we have at all times 

borne with that, which we could not amend in this booke, and 

* W. iii. 319. 2 W. iii. 326. 


have used the same in oure ministerie, so farre forthe as we might : 
reverencing those times & those persones, in which and by whom 
it was first aucthorised, being studious of peace, and of the building 
up of Christes churche, yet now being compelled by subscription 
to allowe the same, and to confesse it, not to be against the worde 
of God in any point but tollerable : We must nedes say as foloweth^'^^ 
that this boke is an unperfecte booke, culled & picked out of A 
that popishe dunghil, the ^ IMasse booke full of all abhominations. 
For some, & many of the contents therin, be suche as are againste 
the woord of God, as by his grace shall be proved unto you. 
And by the way, we can not but much marvel at the craftie 
wilynesse of those men whose partes it had ben fyrst to have 
proved eche and every content therin, to be agreable to the 
worde of God, seing that they enforce men by subscription to 
consent unto it, or else send them packing from their callings. 

I. They^ shoulde first prove, that a reading service by the 
woorde of God^ going before, and with the administration of the 
sacraments, is according to the woorde of God, that private 
Communion, private baptisme, baptisme ministred by women, holy- 
dayes ascribed to sainctes, prescript services for them, kneeling* 
at communion, wafer cakes for their breade when they minister it, 
surplesse and coape to do it in ; churching ^ of women, comming 
in vails ^, abusing the psalm to her *, I have lifted up mine eyes unto 
the hilles, etc, and suche other foolishe things, are agreeable to the 
written woorde of the almightie. But^ their crafte is plaine. 
Wherin they deceive them selves, standing so much uppon this 
woorde repugnant, as thoughe nothing were repugnaunt, or against 
the word of God, but that which is expressely forbidden by plain 
commaundement, they knowe wel inoughe and woulde confesse, 
if either they were not blinded, or else theyr heartes hardened, that 
in the circumstances eche content * wherewith we justly fynde faulte, 

* Ps. cxx. 

* The 2nd ed. has "the Portuise and Masse boke." 
» W. ii. 513, iii. 333. 

' The 2nd ed. has " prove by the word of God that a reading service going 
before " — thus correcting the erratum noted after the preface, p. 7. 

* W. ii. 591. 5 -^y jj jg2. 

* and ed. inserts " which is not commaiinded by lawe, but yet the abuse is 
great, by reson that superstition is grown therby in the hartes of many, and 
others are judged that use it not." 

' W. iii. 335, 

' There is a fuUstop here in ist ed. as noticed for correction in preface. 


and they to contentiously for the love of their livings maintain, 
smelling of their olde popish priesthod, is against the word of 
God. For^ besides that this prescript forme of service as they 
call it, is full of corruptions, it mainteined'^ an unlawful! minis- 
terie, unable to execute that office. 

By ^ the word of God, it is an oflFyce of preaching, they make 
it an offyce of reading : Christe said ^ goe preache, they in mockerie 
give them the Bible, and authoritie to preache, and yet suffer them 
not, except that they have newe licences. So that they make the 
cheefest part preching *, but an accessorie that is as a thing without 
which their offyce may and doth consist. In the scriptures there 
is attributed unto the ministers of God, the knowledge of the 
^ heavenly misteries, and therfore as the greatest token of their love, 
they are enjoined to ^ fede Gods Lambes, and yet with these, suche 
are admitted and accepted, as onely are bare readers that are able 
to say service, and minister a sacrament ^ And that this is not 
the feding that Christ spake of, the scriptures are plain ^. Reading 
is not feeding, but^ it is as evill as playing upon a stage, and 
worse too. For players yet learne their partes wythout booke, 
and these, a manye of them can scarcely read within booke. 
These are emptie feeders, « darcke eyes, fill workemen to hasten in 
the Lordes harvest ^messengers that cannot call, ti Prophets that 
cannot declare the wil of the Lorde, iunsavery salte, ^biinde 
guides, isleepie watchmen i^untrustie dispensers of Gods secretes, 
Devil dividers of the worde, oweake to withstand the adversary, 
p not able to confute, and to conclude, so farre from making the 
man of God perfect to all good works, that rather the quite 
contrary may be confyrmed. 

* Mat. xxvi. [xjcviii] 19; Marc. xvi. 15. '' I Corinth. iv. i. " John.xxi. 16, 17. 

* For reading ministers, vievve these places. Mai. ii. 7 J Esai. Ivi. 10 ; 
Zach. xi. 15 ; Mat. xv. 14 ; i Timoth. iii. 3 [6]. 

« Math. vi. 22. * Matt. ix. 38; Philip, iii. ^ Luc. xiv. 17. 

^ Math, xxiii. 34. ' Math. v. 13. ^ Math. xv. 14. ^ Esay. Ivi. 10. 

•" I Corinth, iv. i ; Luc. xvi. i, &c. ° 2 Timoth. ii. 15. ° Tit. i. 9. 
P 2 Timoth. iii. 15, 16. 

' W. iii. 336. ^ 2nd ed. has " maintaineth." 

' "W. iii. 40, 336. * 2nd ed. has "which is preching." 

* 2nd ed. adds "according to their appointment." 

' 2nd ed. has " For bare reading of the word and single service saying is 
bare feeding, yea it is," &c. 


By ^ this booke, bare reading is ^ good tilling, and single service 
saying, is excellent ^ building, and he is sheapheard good inough, 
that can as popishe priestes coulde, oute of their Portuise, say 
fairely theyr divine service. Nay, ^ some in the fulnesse of their 
blasphemie have sayd that muche preaching bringeth the word of 
God into contempt, and that fower preachers were inoughe for all 
London, so farre are they from thinking it necessary, and seeking 
that every congregation should have a faithfuU pastor. Paule 
was not so wise as these politique men. When he sayde, we 
c can not beleeve except we heare, and we can not heare without 
a preacher, etc, seing we may heare by reading and so beleve 
without a preacher. Folishly ^ he spake, when he saide he d must 
be apt to teache, sith every man of the basest sort of the people 
is admitted to this function of such as « Jeroboam did sometimes 
make his priestes. We wil say no more in this matter, but 
desire you to consider with us what small profyt and edifycation 
this seely reading hath broughte to us these 1 3. yeres paste (except 
perhaps by some circumcelion or newe Apostle, we have had 
nowe and then a fleeing sermon) surely our sinnes are growen 
ripe, our ignorance is equale with the ignorance f of our leaders, 
we are lost sthey cannot fynde us, we are sicke, they can not 
heale us, we are hongry, they cannot fynde * us, except they leade 
us by other mennes lights, and heale us by saying a prescript 
forme of service, or else feede us with homilies, that are to homely, 
to be sette in the place of Gods scriptures ^ But drunken they 
are, and shewe theyr owne shame, that strive so egarely to defend 
their doyngs, that they wyl only not acknowledge their imperfec- 
tions : but will enforce other men to allow them. 

2. In® this booke also, it is appointed that after the Creede, if 
there be no sermon, an homilie must folow either already set 
out, or hereafter to be set oute. This is scarse plaine dealing, that 

* I Corinth, iii. 5. "^ I Corinth, iii. 9. = Roma. x. 14. 

■* I Timoth. iii. 2. "2 Chro. xiii. 9. 

' Esai xxiv. 2 [2nd ed. adds v. 5]. 

^ Zach. xi. 13 [2nd ed. has w. 15, 16, 17]. 

1 W. iii. 52. 2 W. iii. 6. ' W, iii. 52. 

* 2nd ed. " feede us." 

' 2nd ed. inserts "are not the people wel modified thinke you, when the 
homily of sweping the church is red unto them?" 
« W. iii. 338. 


they wold have us consent unto that which we never sawe, and 
which is to be set out hereafter, we having had such cause already 
to distrust them, by that which is already set out, being corrupt 
& strange, to maintane an unlearned & readyng ministerie : and 
sith it is playne that mennes workes ought to be kepte in, and 
nothyng els but the voice of God and holy Scriptures, in which 
onely are contained^ all fulnes and sufficiencie to decide con- 
troversies, must sound in his church, for the very name Apocrypha 
testifieth that they ought rather to be kept close than to be uttered ^ 

3. In this booke '^, dayes are ascribed unto Saintes, and kept holy 
with fastes on their evenes, & prescript service appointed for 
them, which beside that, they are of many superstitiously kepte 
and observed, are also contrary to the commaundment ^ of God. 
Sixe dayes shalt thou laboure, and therefore we for the superstition 
that is put in them, dare not subscribe to allowe them. 

4. In this booke ^ we are enjoined to receave the Communion 
kneeling, which beside that it hath in it a '^ shew of papisterie * 
doth not so wel expresse the misterie ^ of this holy Supper. For 
as in the old Testament eating the Paschal lambe standing, signified 
a readinesse to pass even so in receavyng it now sitting ^ accordyng 
to the example of Chryst, we signifye rest, that is, a ful finishing 
thorow Chryst e of al the ceremonial law, and a perfect worke of 
redemption wroght that geveth rest for ever. And so we avoide 
also the danger of Idolatrie, which was in times past too common, 
and yet is in the harts of manie, who have not yet^ forgotten 
their breaden '' God, so slenderlie have they ben instructed ? Against 

* 2 Tim. iii. 16, 17 ; 2 Petri, i. 20 [2nd ed. adds vv. 19, 21] ; Rom. i. 16 ; 
I Cor. i. 18, &c. 

'' Exodus XX. 9; Exodus xxiii. 12 ; Deutero. v. 13; Esa. i. 10, 13, 14; Levitic. 
xxiii. 3 ; 2 Esra. i. 13 ; Rom. xiv. 6 ; Galat. iv. 10, 11. 

* I Thessal. v. 22 ; Exodus xii. 11. 

"^ Math. xxvi. 20; Marc. xiv. 18 ; Luc. xxii. 14 ; Johann. xiii. 28. 

* Galath. iv. 10 ; Galath. v. 3, 4, 5 ; Hebrewes in many places. 

' 2nd ed. alters this to " they were red in secrete and not openly." 
^ W. iii. 592. * W. iii. 92. * 2nd ed. "popish idolatry." 

^ 2nd ed. has " doth not so well expresse a supper, neither agreeth it so well 
with the institution of Christe, as sitting dothe. Not that we make sitting 
a thing of necessitie belonging unto the Sacrament, neither affirme we that it 
may not be recieved other wise, but that it is more near the Institution, and also 
a meane to avoid it." 

« 2nd ed. omits " yet." ^ 2nd ed. " bread God." 


which we may set the commandement. ^•Thou shalt not bow 
down to it, nor worship it. 

5. As ^ for the halfe Communion, which is yet appointed like to Halfe 
the commemoration of the Masse, we say little of it, saving that ^°^/^^ 
we may note, how neare the translator bounde himselfe to the 
Masse booke, that wold not omit it. We ^ speake not of the name 

of priest wherwith he defaceth the minister of Christ (bicause the 
priest that translated it, woulde perhappes faine have the ministers 
of Christ to be joyned with him) seeing the offyce of Priesthode is 
ended, Christe being the last priest that ever was. To call us 
therefore priestes as touching oure offyce, is either to call backe 
againe the old priesthode of the law, which is to deny Christ to 
be comen, or else to kepe a memory of the popish priesthode 
of abhomination stil amongste us. As for the fyrst, it is by ^ Christe 
abolished, and for the second it is of Antichrist, and therfore we 
have nothing to do with it. Such ought to havec no place in 
our church, neither are they ministers of Christe, sent to preach 
his gospel!, but priests of the Pope to sacrifyce for the quicke and 
the dead, that is to tread under their feete the bloude of Christ. 
Suche oughte not to have place amongste us, as the scriptures 
manifestly teache. Besides that we never reade in the newe 
Testament, that this woorde priest as touching offyce, is used in 
the good parte '. 

6. Sixthly *, in this boke three or foure are allowed for a fytte \J 
number to receive the communion, and the priest alone together 
with one more, or with the sicke man alone, may in time of 
necessitie, that is, when there is any common plague, or in time 
of other visitation, minister it to the sicke man, and if he require 
it, it may not be denyed. This is not I am sure like in effect 
to a private masse : that scripture ^ drink ye all of this, maketh 
not againste this, and private communion is not againste the 

^ Exo. XX. 5. '' Hebr. v. 1,6; Hebr. ix. 11. 

« Eze. xliv. 10, 12, 13; Jeremie xxiii. ; Hebr. v. 4. 
^ Math. xxvi. 27 ; Marc. xiv. 23. 

1 W. iii. 381. 2 W. 350. 

^ and ed. adds "except it speake of the Leviticall priesthode, or of the 
priesthode of Christe." 
* W- ii. 548. 


7. And as for private baptisme, that wil abide the touchstone. 
^Goe ye, sayth Christ and teache, baptising them, etc. Now 
teaching is devorsed from communions and sacraments. They 
may goe alone without doctrine. Women that may ^ not speake 
in a congregation, may yet in time of necessitie, minister the 
sacrament of baptisme, & that in a private house. And yet this 
is not to tie necessitie of salvation to the sacraments, nor to nowsell 
men up in that opinion. This is agreable with the scriptures, and 
therfore when they bring the baptized childe, they are received 
with this special commendation. I certefye you, that you have 
done well, and according unto due order, etc. But now we speake 
in good earnest, when they answer this : Let them tell us, howe 
this geare agreeth with the scriptures, and whether it be not 
repugnante or against the worde of God : ^ 

8. The '^ publique baptisme, that also is full of childishe & super- 
stitious toyes. First in their prayer they say that God by the 
baptisme of his Sonne Jesus Christ, did sanctify the floude Jordan, 
and all other waters, to the mysticall washing away of sinne, 
attributing that to the signe whiche is « propre to the worke of God 
in the bloud of Christe, as though vertue were in water, to washe 
away sinnes. Secondly ^, they require a promisse of the godfathers 
and godmothers (as they terme them) which is not ^ in their powers 
to perform. Thirdly*, they prophane holye baptisme, in toying 
folishly, for that they aske questions of an infante, which can 
not answere, and speake unto them, as was wont to be spoken 
unto men, and unto such as being converted, answered for them- 
selves, & were baptized. Which is but a mockerie ^ of God, and 
therefore against the holy scriptures. Fourthly^, they do super- 
stitiously and wickedly institute a newe sacrament, which is proper 

' Mat. xxviii. 19. b i Cor. xiv. 34; I Tim. ii. ir. 

" I Johann. i. 7 ; Act. xx. 28 ; Rom. iii. 34. 

* Rom. vii. 15, 18, 21 ; Rom. ix. 16. • Galath. vi. 7. 

' 2nd ed. adds " But some will say that the baptisme of women is not com- 
maunded by law. If it be not, why doe you suffer it, and wherfore are the 
children so baptised accordingly ? common experience teacheth that it is used 
almost in all places, and fewe speake against it. And this I am sure of, that 
when it was put in the booke that was the meaning of the most part that were 
then present, and so it was to be understande as common practise without 
controlment doth plainly declare." 

» W. iii. 381. 3 Yi^ i^_ J J 8. 4 w. iii. 114. ^ W. iii. 128. 


to Christe only, marking the childe in the forheade with a crosse, in 
token that hereafter he shall not be ashamed to confesse the 
faith of Christ. We have made mention before of that wicked 
devorse of the worde and sacramentes. We say nothing of those 
that are admitted to be witnesses, what ill choise there is made of 
them, how ^ conveniente it were, seeing the children of the faithfuU 
only are to be baptized, that the father should and mighte, if 
conveniently, offer and present his child to be baptized, making 
an open confession of that faithe, wherein he would have his childe 
baptized, "^ and how this is used in well ordered churches. 

9. As ^ for matrimonie, that also hathe corruptions to many. It 
was wonte to be compted a sacramente, and therfore they use yet 
a sacramental signe, to which they attribute the vertue of wedlocke. 
I meane the wedding ring, which they fowly abuse & dally with 
all, in taking it up, and laying it downe : In putting it on, they 
abuse the name of the Trinitie, they make the newe marryed man, 
according to the Popish forme, to make an idol of his wife, saying : 
with this ring I thee wedde, with my body I thee worshippe, etc. 
And bicause in Poperie, no holy action mighte be done without 
a masse, they enjoine the marryed persones to receive the com- 
munion (as they do their bishoppes and priestes when they are 
made, etc.) other pettie things oute of the booke, we speake not of, 
as that * women contrary » to the rule of the Apostle, come, and 
are suffered to come bare headed, with bagpipes and fidlers before 
them, to disturbe the congregation, and that they must come in at 
the great dore of the church, or else all is marred ^ 

10. As for confirmation °, which was in times past^ Apostolicall, 
and so called of the auncient fathers, yet as they use it by the 
Bishoppe alone to them that lacke both discretion and faithe, it is 
superstitious and not agreeable to the word of God, but popish 
and pevish, we speake not of other toyes used in it ; and how farre 

* Abuses accidental. * i Corinth, xi. 5. •" Hebr. vi. i. 

* W. iii. 138. 2 and ed. has " as is used in well reformed churches." 
3 W. iii. 353. 

* 2nd ed. adds " With divers other heathnish toys in sondry countries, as 
carying of wheate sheaffes on their heads, and casting of come, with a number 
of such like, wherby they make rather a Male game of marriage, then a holy 
Institution of God." 

» W. iii. 357. 


it differeth, and is degenerated from the firste institution, they 
themselves that are learned can witnesse \ 

n. They ^ appointe a prescripte kind of service to burie the dead : 
And that which is the duety of every christian, they tie alone to 
the minister, wherby prayer for the dead is maintained, and partly 
gathered oute of some of the prayers, where they pray that we with 
this oure brother, and all other departed in the true faithe of thy 
holy name, may have our perfect consummation and blisse, bothe 
in bodye and soule. We say nothing of the threefold peale bicause 
that it is rather licensed by injunction, then commaunded in their 
booke, nor of their straunge mourning by chaunging theyr garments, 
which if it be not hipocritical, yet it is superstitious and heathnish, 
bicause it is used onely of custome, nor of buriall sermons, whiche 
are put in place of trentalles, wherout spring many abuses, and 
therfore in the best reformed churches, are removed. As for the 
superstitions used bothe in Countrey and Citie, for the place of 
buryall, which way they muste lie, how they must be fetched to 
churche, the minister meeting them at churche stile with surplesse, 
w}'th a companye of greedie clarkes, that a crosse white or blacke, 
must be set upon the deade corpes, that breade muste be given to 
the poore, and offrings in buryall time used, and cakes sent abrode 
to frendes, bycause these are rather used of custome and super- 
stition, then by the authoritie of the boke. Small commaundement 
will serve for the accomplishing of such things. But great charge 
will hardly bring the least good thing to passe, and therefore all 
is let alone, and the people as blinde and as ignorante as ever they 
were. God be mercyfull unto us ^. 

12. Churching* of women after childbirthe, smelleth of Jewishe 
purification : theyr other rytes and customes in their lying in, & 
comming to church, is foolishe and superstitious, as it is used. 
She must lie in with a white sheete uppon her bed, and come 

^ 2nd ed. has for sect. lo " As for confirmation which the papists and our 
men say was in times past Apostolical, grounding their opinion perhaps upon 
some dreame of Hierome, yet as they use it by the bishop alone, to them that 
lack both discretion and faithe, it is superstitious & not agreable to the word 
of God, but popish & pevishe. As though baptism were not already perfect, 
but neded confirmation, or as though the bishop coulde give the holy ghost." 

* W. iii. 362. 

' 2nd ed. adds "and open our eyes that we may see what that good and 
acceptable will of God is, and be more earnest to provoke his glory." 

* W. ii. 563. 


covered with a vayle, as ashamed of some folly. She must offer, 
but these are matters of custome, and not in the booke. But this 
Psalme (as is noted before) is childishly abused % I have lifte up 
mine eyes unto the hils, from whence commeth my healpe. The 
sunne shall not burne thee by day, nor the moone by nighte. 
They^ pray that all men may be saved, & that'^ they may be 
delivered from thundering & tempest, when no danger is nighe. 
That they sing Benedictus, Nunc dimittis and Magnificat, we 
knowe not to what purpose, except some of them were ready 
to die, or excepte they would celebrate the memory of the virgine, 
and John Baptist, etc. Thus they prophane the holy scriptures. 

13. In '' all their order of service '^ there is no edification, according 1/'^ 
to the rule of the Apostle, but confusion, they tosse the Psalmes "' .. 
in most places like tennice balles. The people some standing, 
some walking, some talking, some reading, some praying by 
themselves, attend not to the minister. He againe posteth it 
over, as fast as he can gallop. For either he hathe two places 
to serve, or else there are some * games to be playde in the 
afternoone, as lying for the whetstone, heathnishe dauncing for 
the ring, a beare or a bull to be baited, or else Jacke an apes to 
ride on horssebacke, or an enterlude to be plaide, and if no 
place else can be gotten, it must be done* in the churche, etc. 
Nowe the people sit and now they stand up. When the old 
Testament is read, or the lessons, they make no reverence, but 
when the gospel commeth, then they al t stand up. For why, they 
thinke that to be of greatest authoritie, and are ignorante that the 
scriptures came from one spirite. When Jesus is named, then of 
goth the cappe, and downe goeth the knees, with suche a scraping 
on the ground, that they cannot heare a good while after, so that 
ihe word is hindred, but when any other names of God are men- 
tioned, they make no curtesie at all, as though the names of God 
were not equall, or as thoughe all reverence oughte to be given to 
the syllables. We speake not of ringing, when Mattens is don 
and X other abuses incident. Bicause we shalbe answered, that by 

* Psalm cxxi. ^ i Cor. xiv. 16. 

* Games of Sodom. 

•)■ Standing at the gospel came from Anastatius the pope, in An. 404. 
% Accidental abuses. 

1 W. iii. 383. * W. ii. 477. » -^y. iii. 384. 

* 2nd ed. has " this enterlude must be playde." 


the boke they are not maintained, only we desire to have a booke 
to reforme it. As ^ for organes and curious singing, thoughe they 
be proper to popishe dennes, I meane to Cathedrall churches, yet 
some others also must have them. The queenes chappell, and 
these churches must be "^ paternes and presidents to the people, of 
all superstitions. 

14. Their' pontificall (which is annexed to the boke of common 
prayer, and whereunto subscribing to the Articles, we must subscribe 
also) whereby they consecrate Bishoppes, make ministers and dea- 
cons, is nothing else but a thing worde for worde drawne out of the 
Popes pontifical, wherin he sheweth himselfe to be Anti-christ most 
lively. And 3- as the names of Archbishops, Archdeacons, Lord 
bishops, Chancelers, etc, are drawne out of the Popes shop togither 
with their offices. So the governement which they use, by the life 
of the Pope which is the Canon law is Antichristian and devilishe, 
and contrarye to the scriptures. And * as safely may we, by the 
warrant of Gods word subscribe to allowe the dominion of the 
pope universally to raigne over the church of God, as of an 
archbishop over an whole province, or a Lord bishop over 
a diocesse, which containeth many shyres and parishes. For the 
dominion that they exercise the Archbyshop above them, and they 
above the rest of theyr brethren, is unlawfuU, and expresly forbidden 
by the woorde of God. 

15. Agayne^ in that they are honoured with the'' titles of kings 
and ^ greate rulers, as Lorde, Lorde's grace, Metropolitane, primate 
of all Englande, honor, etc, it is againste the word of God. 

Moreover, in that they have ^ civill offices, joyned to the Eccle- 
siasticall, it is againste the woorde of God. As for an Archbishop 
to be a Lord president, a Lorde bishop, to be a countie Palatine, 
a Prelate of the garter, who hath much to do at S. Georges feast, 
when the Bible is caried before the procession in the crosses place, 

* Luc. xxii. 25, 26 ; i Petri, v. 3, 4, 5 ; Math. xx. 25, 26 ; Math, xxiii. 8, il, 
12 ; Galat. ii. 6 ; Hebr. v. 4 ; Luc. xvi. 25 ; Ezech. xxxiv. 4 ; 2 Corinth, i. 34. 

'' Math, xxiii. 8, &c. ; Johann. xiii. 15, 16; Johann. v. 44; 3 Cor. x. 16, 17, 18. 
c Luc. ix. 60, 61 ; Luc. xii. 14; Rom. xii. 7 ; i Timoth. vi. 11 ; 2 Timoth. 

* W. iii. 392. 

' 2nd ed. has "... (which shoulde be spectacles of christian reformation) 
are rather patternes" etc. 

» W. ii. 408. * W. ii. 415. 8 W. iii. 405. 

' 2nd ed. omits " kings and." 


a justice of peace, or justice of Quorum, an highe Commissioner, etc. 
and therefore they have their prisonnes *, as clinkes, gatehouses, 
colehouses, towers and castles, which is also againste the scriptures. 
This is not to have keyes but swords, & plaine tokens they are, 
that they exercise that, whiche they woulde so faine seeme to want, 
I meane dominion over their brethren ^ 

16. In ^ that the Lorde Bishops, their suffraganes, Archdeacons, 
Chancelers, officials, proctors, Doctors, sumners, and such ravening 
rablers, take upon them, which is most horrible, the rule of Goddes 
churche, spoiling the pastor ^ of his lawful jurisdiction over hys own 
flocke given by the word, thrusting away most sacrilegiously that 
order which Christ hath left to hys church, & which the primative 
churche hath used, they shewe they holde the doctrine with us, but 
in unrighteousnesse, with an outward shewe of godlynesse, but 
having denyed the power therof, entring not ^ in by Christ, but by 
a popishe and unlawfuU vocation. We speake not" howe they 
make Ministers by themselves alone, and of their sole authoritie, 
and that in secrete places, of theyr election and probation, that it is 
of him, to whom by no right it belongeth. And that when they 
have made them, either they may tarrye in theyr Colledge, and lead 
the lives of loytering losels, as long as they live, or else gadde abrode 
with the Bishops bulles like to Circumcelions, to preach in other 
mennes charges where they liste, or else get benefices by frendshippe 
or money, or flatterie where they can catche them, or to conclude : 
If all these faile, that they may go up and down like beggers, and fall 
to many follyes : or else as many have don, set up bils at Pauls, 
or at the Royall exchange, and in such public places, to see if they 
can heare of some good maysters, to entertaine them into service. 
Surely, by the Canon law, by which the bishops raigne and rule, 
they ought to kepe those ministers, which they make as long as 

* Bishops prisons, popish Eugenius the first bringer of them in. 

» Mat. xviii. 17, 18; Act. xi. 30; Act. xv. 2, 4, 6, &c. ; Rom. xii. 7, 8; 
Philip, i. I ; I Corinth, xii. 285 i Thess. v. 12, 13; i Timoth. iv. 14; 
1 Timoth. V. 1 7. 

•• Johann. x. i. 

c Act. vi. 3, 4 ; Act. xiv. 23 ; Actes xx. 28, 30, &c. ; Rom. xii, 6, 7, 8 ; 
I Col. ix. 16, 17. 

* 2nd ed. adds " And which of them have not preached againste the Popes 
two swordes : nowe whether they use them not themselves ? " 

* W. iii. 246, 273. 


they have no livings and places. We know three or foure Bishops 
in this realme, would have kept such houses, as never none did in 
this lande, if this rule had bene observed. They clapt them out 
so fast by hundredes, and they make them pay wel for their orders, 
and surely to speake the truth they were worthy, for the Bishoppes 
(what oddes so ever there were of their giftes) yet in theyr letters gave 
them all a like commendation. They put on their surplesses, 
or else subscribed like honest men. Fie upon these stinking 

17. We^ should be to long to tell your honoures of Cathedrall 
churches, the dennes aforsaide of all loytering lubbers, wher master 
Deane, master Vicedeane, master Canons or Prebendaries the 
greater, master pettie Canons, or Canons the lesser, master Chan- 
celler of the churche, master treasurer, otherwise called Judas the 
purssebearer, the cheefe chauntor, singing men speciall favourers of 
religion, squeaking queresters, organ players, gospellers, pistelers, 
pentioners, readers, vergerirs. etc. live in great idlenesse, and have 
their abiding. If you woulde knowe whence all these came, we 
can easely answere you, that they came from the Pope, as oute of 
the Troian horses bellye, to the destruction of Gods kingdome. 
The churche of God never knewe them, neither doth any reformed 
churche in the world know them. 

18. And^ birdes of the same fether, are covetous patrones of 
benefices, persones, vicares, readers, parishe priests, stipendaries, 
and riding chaplains, that under the aucthoritie of their maisters, 
spoile theyr flockes of the foode of their soules. ^ Suche seeke not 
the Lord Jesus, but theyr owne bellies, ^ clouds they are without 
raine, trees without frute, ^ painted sepulchres full of dead bones, 
fatted in all aboundance of iniquitie, and leane locustes in all 
feeling, knowledge, and sinceritie. 

19. What^ shoulde we speake of the Archbishops court, sith all 
men knowe it, and your wisedomes cannot, but see what it is. 
As all other courts ar subject to this, by the Popes prerogative, 
yea, and by statute of this realme yet unrepealed, so is it the filthy 
quauemire, and poysoned plashe of all the abhominations that doe 
infect the whole realme. We speake not of licenses graunted out 

Philip, ii. 21. 

^ Jude 12. 

" Mat. xxiii. 27. 

1 W. iii. 394. " W. iii. 456. ' W. iii. 376. 

* and ed. advises " read Calvin in his commentaries upon these places." 


of this courte to marry in forbidden times, as in lent, in advent, in the Ephe. xi. 
gang weke, when banners and bells with ^ the prieste in his surplesse, j^xhes v. 
singing gospels, and making crosses, rangeth aboute in many places, 13- _ 
upon the ember dayes, and to forbidden persons, and in exempt Heb!°x^^a 
places. We make no mention of licences, to eat white meat, and 
fleshe in lent, and that with a safe conscience, for riche men that 
can buy them with money, nor we say nothing how derely men pay 
for them. As for dispensations with beneficed boyes, tollerations 
for non residentes, bulles to have two benefices, to have three, to have 
more, and as many as they list or can gette, these are so common, 
that all godly and good men are compelled with grefe of hart, to 
cry out upon such abominations. We omit excommunication for 
money, absolution for the same, and that by absolving one man 
for another, which how contrary it is to the scriptures the complaints 
of many learned men by propositions in open scholes proposed, by 
wrytings in printed bokes set oute, and by preaching in open pulpits, 
have beene sufficiently witnessed. To conclude, this filthy court 
hath full power together with the aucthoritie of this pettie pope, 
metropolitane and primate of all England, to dispence in all causes, 
wherein the pope was wont to dispence, under which are contained 
more cases and causes ^ then we are able to recken. As for my 
Lords grace oP York, we deale not with him. We refer him to 
that learned Epistle, which Beza wrote unto him aboute these 

20. And* as for the commissaries court, that is but a pettie little 
stinking ditche, that floweth oute of that former great puddle, \/ 
robbing Christes church of lawful! pastors, of watchfull Seniors 
and Elders, and carefull Deacons. In this court as in the other, 
* one alone doth excommunicate, one alone sitteth in judgement, and 
when he will, can drawe backe the judgement which he hath 
pronounced, having called upon the name of God, and that for 
money which is called the chaunging of penaunce. In this courte, 
for non paiment of two pence, a man shall be excommunicated if 
he appeare not when he is sent for, if he doe not as his ordinarie 
would, from whom he had his popish induction and institution, 
& to whom he hath sworne, Canonicam obedientiam, Canonicall 
obedience, if he learne not his Catechisme like a good boye withoute 

* I Cor. V. 4. 

* 2nd ed. omits " banners and bells with." ' 2nd ed. has " causes and cases." 
' 2nd ed. has "the Archbishop of York." * W. iii. 279. 


booke, when it were more meete he shoulde be able to teach others. 
To conclude : if he be not obedient to all these Lord bishops 
officers, by and by he must be cut of by excommunication. And, 
as it is lightly graunted and given forthe, so if the money be paide, 
and the court discharged, it is as quickly called in again. This 
courte poulleth parishes, scourgeth the poore hedge priestes, ladeth 
Churchwardens with manifest perjuries, punisheth whoredomes and 
adulteryes with toyishe censures, remitteth without satisfying the 
congregation, and that in secrete places, giveth out dispensations for 
unlawfull manages, and committeth a thousand such like abhomina- 
tions. God deliver al Christians out of this Anti-christian tyrannic, 
where the judges advocates and proctors for the most part are 
papists, and as for the scribes and notaries as greedy as cormorantes, 
and if they all should perhappes see this wryting, they would be as 
angry as waspes, & sting like hornets. Three of them would be 
inowe to sting a man to death, for why they are highe commissioners. 

All this we say springeth oute of this pontificall, which we must 
allowe by subscription, setting downe oure hands, that it is not 
repugnaunte or againste that worde of god, we meane this Anti- 
christian hierarchie, and popishe orderyng of ministers, strange 
from the word of GOD, and the use of all well reformed churches 
in the world. 

2 1. We ^ have almost let passe one thing worthy the remembrance, 
which is, that they take upon them blasphemouslie, having neyther 
promise nor commaundement to say to their new creatures, receave 
the Holie ghost. As though the Holy ghost wer in their power to 
geve without warrant, at their owne pleasure. 

And thus'^ much be spoken as touchyng this booke, agaynst 
which to stand, is a wonder to two sortes of men, the one ignorant, 
the other obstinate. * The Lorde geve those that be his, under- 
standyng in al thynges, that they may have judgement : as for the 
other whom the God of this worlde hath blinded, least they '' shuld 
see and confesse the truth and so be saved, and that doe in the full 
growth of wickednes, maHciouslie resist the truth. God confound 
them, that peace may be upon Israeli, and his saving health upon 
this nation. Amen. 

' 2 Timoth. ii. 7 ; 2 Corinth, iv. 4. '' Math. xiii. 15. 

* W. iii. 280. 2nd ed. has a marginal note "It containeth manifest 
blasphemie, as may appeare. Ephes. i. 17." 
» W. iii. 457. 


The 2. Ariicle. 

That'' the manner and order appointed by publique authoritie 
about the administration of the Sacraments and common prayers, 
and that the apparel by sufficient authoritie appointed for the 
ministers within the church of England, be not wicked nor 
against the word of God, but tollerable, and being com- 
manded for order and obedience sake, are to be used. 
For the order of administration of Sacraments and common 
prayer, enough is said before, al the service and administration is 
tyed to a surplesse, in Cathedral! churches they must have a coape, 
they receave the Communion kneelyng, they use not for the moste 
part common bread * according to the word of God, and the statute, 
but starch bread accordyng to the Injunction. They commonly 
minister the Sacraments without preachyng the worde. 

And'^ as for the apparell, though we have ben long borne in 
hand, and yet are, that it is for order and decencie commanded, 
yet we know and have proved that there is neither order, nor 
cumlines, nor obedience in using it. There is no order in it, but 
confusion : No cumlines, but deformitie : No obedience, but dis- 
obedience, both against God and the Prince. We' marvel that 
they could espie in their last Synode, that a gray Amise, which 
is but a garment of dignitie, shoulde be a garment (as they say) 
defyled with superstition, and yet that copes, caps, surplesses, tippets 
and suche lyke baggage, the preachyng signes of popysh priest- 
hode, the popes creatures, kept in the same forme to this end, to 
bryng dignitie and reverence to the Ministers and Sacraments, 
shoulde be retayned styll, and not abolyshed. But they * are as the 
garments of the Idole, to which we should say, avaunt and get thee 
hence. They are as the garments of Balamites ^, of popish priestes, 
enemies to God and all Christians. They * serve not to edification c, 
they ® have the shewe of evyll (seyng the popysh priesthode is evyll), 
they'^ worke discorde, they hinder the preachyng of the Gospel, 
they® kepe the memorie of Egipt styl amongst us, and put us in 
mynd of that abomination wherunto they in times past have served, 
they bryng the ministerie into contempte, they offend the weake, 

"• Act. ii. 46 ; Act. xx. 7. *> Esai. xxx. 22. " i Thes. v. 22. 

1 W. iii. 459. 2 "vv. ii. 49. ' W. ii. 50. * W. ii. 52. 

* W. ii. 56. « W. ii. 67. ' W. ii. 69. » W. ii. 7a. 



they encourage the obstinate. Therfore ^ can no authoritie by the 
word of God, with any pretence of order and obedience com- 
mand them, nor make them in any wyse toUerable, but by circum- 
stances, they are wicked, & against the word of God. 

If '^ this be not playne enoughe by that which is already set forth, 
we mynde by Gods grace to make it playner, and should doe it 
better, if it were as lawfull for us (as for our adversaries) to publish 
our mindes in print ^ Then * shoude appeare what slender stuffe 
they bring, that are so impudent by open writyng to defend it. 
And if it might please her Majestie, by the advise of you right 
Honorable, in this high Courte of Parliament to heare us, by 
wryting or otherwyse to defende our selves, then (such is the 
equitie of our cause) that we wolde trust to fynd favour in 
her Majesties sight: Then those patched Pamphlets made by 
suddaine upstartes, and new converts, shoulde appeare in their 
cullours, and truth have the victorie, and God the glorie. If this 
can not be obtayned, we wyll by Gods grace addresse ourselves to 
defend his truth by suflfring, and willingly lay our heads to the 
blocke, and this shall be our peace, to have quiet consciences with 
our God, whome we wyl abyde for, with al pacience, untyll he worke 
our full deliverance. 

^ W. ii. 73. ' W. iii. 459. 

' and ed. adds " Neither is the controversie betwixt them and ns as they wold 
beare the world in hand, as for a cap, a tippet, or a snrplesse, but for great matters 
concerning a trae ministerie and regiment of the churche, according to the word. 
Which things once established the other melt away of them selves. And yet 
consider I pray you, whether their owne argument dothe not choke them selves, 
for even the verye name of trifles dothe plainly declare that they oughte not to 
be maintained in Christes church. And what shal our bishops win by it I 
Forsothe, that they be maintainers of trifles, and trifling bishops, consuming 
the greatest part of their time in those trifles whereas they shoulde be better 
occupied. We strive for true religion & government of the churche, and shewe 
you the righte way to out Antichrist both head and taile, and that we will 
not so much as communicate with the taile of the beast : but they after they 
have thrust Antichriste out by the head, go about to pull him in again by the 
taile, cunningly colouring it, least any man should espie his fote steps, as Cacus 
did when he stole the oxen." 

* 2nd ed. has the same in different order " For if it might please her majestie, 
by the advise of you, righte Honourable, in this highe Courte of Parliament to 
heare us by writing or otherwise, to defende ourselves, then (suclie is the equitie 
of our cause) that we would trust to finde favor in her majesties sight : then 
should appeare what slender stuffe they bring to defend themselves that are so 
impudent by open writing to defend it. 


TTie 3 article 

That ^ the articles of Religion which only concerne the true 

christian faith, and the doctrine of the Sacraments, comprised in 

a booke imprinted : Articles, whereupon it was agreed by both 

Archbishopps, etc. and everye of them containe true and godly 

Christian doctrine. 

For the Articles concerning that substance of doctrine using Doctrine. 

a godlye interpretation in a point or two, which are either too 

sparely, or els too darkely set downe, we wer and ar ready 

accordyng to dutie, to subscribe unto them. We wold to God The right 

that as they hold the substance together with us, and we with govern- 

them : so they wolde not denye the effect and vertue thereof. Then the 

shoulde not our wordes and works be devorsed, but Christ shulde church 

_ can not be 

be suffred to raigne, a true ministerie according to the worde separated 
instituted, Discipline exercised, Sacraments purely and sincerely ^^^^^ine^ 
ministred. This is that we strive for, and aboute which we have 1 Timoth. 
sufifred a not as evyll doers, but for resistyng Poperie, and refusyng "'• ^• 
to be strong with the tayle of Antichristian infection, readied to 
render a reason of our faith, to be stoppyng of all our enemies 
mouthes. We therfore for the church of Gods sake, which ought 
to be most deare unto you, besech you for our Soveraignes sake, 
uppon whome we pray, that all Gods blessynges may be powred 
aboundantlie. We pray you to consider of these abuses to reforme 
Gods church according to your duties and callynges, that as with 
one mouthe wee confesse one Christe, so with one consent, this 
raigne of Antichrist may be turned out headlonge from amongest us, 
and Christe our Lorde may raigne by his worde over us. So your 
seates shall be established and setled in great assurance, you shall 
not neede to feare your ennemies: for God will turne away his 
threatned plagues from us. Which he in mercie doe, for his 
Christes sake. 


» I Petri, iii. 17. ^ i Petri, iii. 15. 

* W. iii. 461. 


To THE Christian Reader, health in the Lorde. 

We have thoughte good, in this latter end of our booke, for 
sondry considerations, to certify you (beloved brethren) of the 
reasons that have moved us, who ar the authors of these treatises, 
to kepe back our names, and also to suppresse the name of the 
Printer of them, because peradventure it may seeme strange other- 
wyse, and also because we meane not by our example to allow such 
as might abuse you with lewde matter under any such cullour. For 
we do utterly mishke that ther is not in every cuntrie more straight 
lokyng to the printers in that respect, because our time is much 
corrupted with over much license there in. Then thus it is, that 
in deed we are the least able among manie, to speake of these 
matters : and therfore we wold not have it seeme by settyng to our 
names, that we toke upon ourselves singulerly to teach any thing 
that none other can doe, hath doen, or doth, but we. And yet 
we wolde wish, and in the name of the Almightie doe desire, those 
that have the greater gyfts of God, shortly to make some larger 
discourse, then hetherto, either wee or they have, concernyng these 
necessarie matters of Christes church. Agayne, though these 
matters have ben resolved upon already in all the best reformed 
churches : and also have ben by sundrie in this our cuntrie, in 
their sundrie lectures and sermons urged : yet hetherto they are 
not allowed such favour, as to be with out peryl any way pro- 
pounded & set forth. And therfore, though we wyl not refuse 
to put forth our selves to perils for such causes, yet wee feared it ' 
wolde the more exasperate and provoke them that we deale with 
if we shoulde have set to our names : besides that, we feared lest 
we shoulde not yet, have done wel to have betrayed our selves 
unto them. And further, because we were & are content, not 
to be thought such as wyllinglye wolde come in trouble, and yet 
we wolde not leave that unuttered, which it is our duties to utter, 
and which is many waies commodious for the whole estate of this 
our cuntrye to be put in mynde of, havyng respecte also to the 
present Honorable assemblie of this high court of Parliament. More- 
over because we could not have had any that wolde have printed 
our bookes if they so lightly should have ben brought in danger, 
our former reasons also seming to them to have weight to the 
contrarie. Furthermore, because without previledge also to have 


sette too our handes, had not been so much material, and it was 
not possible for us to have that, because the bishops have that 
matter in their hands, and therfore have hindred books which 
came nothing neare to displease them, lyke as these of oures: 
Although our bookes should not seeme to be against the Queenes 
proceedynges, for shee seemeth none otherwyse, but that shee wolde 
have Gods matters to proceede. And last of all, because if we 
fynd it profitable for that church to utter our selves, we ar ready 
so to do. For these several respects we say, have we yet hetherto 
forborne, and wee trust that that which we have sayd wyl seme 
reasonable to you. But wolde to God these matters wer reformed, 
and in the meane while, for as much as if we might without peryl 
(untyll we may be disproved) set forth that which we shoulde 
learne out of the Scriptures, submitting oure selves to the judge- 
ment of the best Churches, we thinke it wer far better that we 
were suffred. And it is hard dealyng, that we shoulde be abridged 
of suche lawful! hbertie. For if they shall objecte any incon- 
venience againste us, it is none other but suche, as mighte stoppe 
the lawful! course of all good bookes : seeing there is none leade 
with better reason to sette foorthe theyr bookes, than we are, and 
seeing far better men ar stopped of their course by this inhibition. 
But we appeale to oure soveraigne, and the whole state, that we 
may not so unequally be dealt with, that they which are parties 
(we meane our bishoppes, and the rest of that sort) should only be 
heard, and be judges in their owne cause too, and the worde of 
God stopped of the course in all others. At theyr handes we have 
httle hope to finde so much uprightnesse : for it is to be doubted, 
they wil ^ kepe backe the key of knowledge, as they have done, 
neyther entring in them selves, and yet (as to this daye they do) 
forbidding them that doe come in. God of his gracious goodnesse, 
blesse them that take this his cause into their handes, and so 
directe them in the using of his spiritual! weapons ^, that they being 
mightie thorowe him, to caste downe holdes, maye overthrowe 
the imaginations, and everye high thing that is exalted againste 
the knowledge of God, and bring into bondage everye thoughte, 
to the obedience of Christ, that he therby may be glorified, his 
church comforted and continued unto eternal! glory. Amen. 


» Luc. xi. 52. ''2 Cor. x. 4, 5. 



There be some men perhappes will marvell, why we have 
annexed the private letters of these learned and reverende men 
to these Treatises, seeing that it may seeme some injurie unto 
them, for that their consent is not there unto. And besides, not 
written so advisedlye, as the publishing in Print woulde require, 
whereout things may be drawne againste bothe parties, being 
written for stay of strife betwene bothe. But we trust that bothe 
the one & the other will beare with us in this behalfe. Firste, 
bicause the godly Brethren have beene often pressed with private 
letters, as not to be of the judgement of the best learned, and that 
therfore we are singular, contentious, and so unstayed, that we 
seeke we can not tel what. Againe, we have for our example the 
reverende Bishops, who to gette the better credite to their cause, 
have shewed us a president of imprinting some private letters, 
though we must needes say neither in so good a cause, nor with 
halfe so much equitie. And what thanke they had for so doing, 
as well D, Bullingers letter written to a Noble man in this realme 
is witnesse, as also this of Maister Gualters which followeth. That 
whiche they did, was in defence of corruptions, and no small 
discredite to the Authors, that which we do is in defence of the 
truth, and to Gods glory, and no doubte to a singular commenda- 
cion of the writers. Albeit we must nedes say that the truthe of 
this cause craveth no credit, neither of their letters nor authoritie. 
For the scriptures are manifest, and the woorkes of these godly and 
learned men, I meane bothe of D. Bullingers and M. Gualters, 
testifie howe farre of, they are from maintaining any of the fore- 
named filthy corruptions. We beseeche thee therefore gentle 
Reader to judge the best of our doings : howsoever it fall out, this 
shall be our comfort the testimonie of a good conscience, wherin 
we minde to rest, and to suffer willingly what so ever shalbe laid 
upon us. These godly men I hope will not be offended with us, 
seeing we doe it for the truthes sake, and to purge them from such 
a judgement to defende corruptions as the Bishops by setting out 
their letters, would seme to charge them. As for the former 
admonition, if in the print they finde many faults, let them remem- 


ber it was done speedely, and as the extremitie would suflfer. For 
the matter, if any thing be justly reproved, it shall be amended, for 
the Treatise, if it be thought too short, it shall by Gods grace be 
enlarged. We though te at the firste onely to give but a taste of these 
corruptions, to provoke the patrons thereof to a more full defence, 
which when it shall be set oute, we minde more fully to shewe our 
meanings. In meane time we beseche God to appease these 
troubles, to worke his peoples deliverance from all Antichristian 
slaverie, to preserve our Queene in peace wholely to seeke the 
Reformation of his Churche whiche shalbe to his glory. 

Fare well. Anno 1572. 


B. OF N. (I think) and his loving Father. 
Health in Christ. When we heard at the first (reverend father 
in Christ) that a controversie of the apparel of Ministers was risen 
among you : that matter did greatly astonish us, because we feared, 
leaste that thing continuing and increasing longer, shoulde bring 
some greater mischiefe : and therfore we laboured as muche as lay 
in us to pacifie some certaine men, least aboute a thing not of anie 
suche great waighte, they shoulde trouble or disquiet themselves. 
And surely this foretelling of oure minde no whitte at all deceived 
us, if those things be true that we heare, to wit : that many other 
things, besides these garments are thrust upon the Churches, and 
those Ministers cast out from the Churches, which will not subscribe 
unto the ordinances of certaine men, whiche either abuse the name 
of the queene, or else by their yeelding, make hir more bolde in 
suche like matters, so that according to her pleasure, shee may 
ordaine what shee will. It increaseth also our greefe, for that we 
see our letter to be imprinted, wherin we indevoured to mitigate 
some one or other man, and that the Godly brethren are pressed 
with the aucthoritie of our name, & so we to come into suspition 
with many, as thoughe we allowed popishe filthinesses or cor- 
ruptions. In deede we counselled certain Ministers, that they 
should not forsake their Churches for a cappe or a surplesse, but 
that so farre forthe as they might. (Keping godlinesse sound and 
untouched) they shoulde feede the Lords flocke. In meane time 
we never have allowed either their superstition or foolishe toyes, 
whiche thruste uppon godly Ministers suche things, and out of 
' John Parkhurst, Bp. of Norwich. 


the Popes schoole, or rather kitchen, scrape such filthinesses 
together, throughe whiche they make much trouble and businesse 
to good pastoures, and give offence to the weake. But especially 
it seemeth harde unto us, that the Bishops shoulde shewe them 
selves to be the officers of this execution, that by them, they 
whiche will not yeelde, should be cast out. I woulde to God they 
would way, what the Lord woulde, when he speaketh of that same 
untrusty steward of the house, who whilest he ought to have fed 
his housholde, banquetteth and playeth with drunckardes, and 
beateth his fellowe servauntes- For I see not howe farre they 
differ from his manners, who doe so easily allowe the phantasies 
of superstitious courtiers, and handle godly Ministers so un- 
curteously. Neither woulde I ever have thoughte that any could 
be found among the Bishoppes, which would have shewed 
himselfe an officer of this rashnesse, or at the least have confirmed 
the same throughe cowardly dissimulation. For me thoughte that 
all this matter had sprong from certaine men that abused the 
aucthoritie of the queenes moste excellent Majestic, but we hoped 
that the Bishoppes woulde have defended the cause of the Ministers, 
and have soughte meanes, whereby this mischeefe mighte have bene 
redressed. There are I graunt among the brethren, certaine men 
a litle waywarde. But notwithstanding, their cause is not evill, 
muche lesse wicked or ungodly, yea rather it were to be wished 
that their judgemente mighte prevaile, the whiche thing bicause 
then it seemed impossible unto us, we admonished them to bend 
them selves to things present, and that they shoulde truste in the 
Lorde, who at length would give some occasion, whereby all things 
shoulde be restored to better. Nowe because I heare (my Father) 
youre godlinesse to be especially praised among the rest, as also 
the godlinesse of oure father D. Pilkington (who would not as yet 
tourne oute anie) you for oure olde frendshippes sake seeme to be 
admonished, that you goe forwarde constantly in the same godli- 
nesse. And that you remember that everye one of us hathe sinnes 
ynowe in him selfe, so that there is no neede that he communicate 
with other mennes offences. Christ is the husbande of his owne 
churche, and a moste sharpe revenger, and will not suffer the 
wronge that is done to his faithfuU servauntes to escape unpunished. 
To this Christ one day shall an accounte of this our function and 
office be made, not to a queene, nor to the Pope, nor to them 
whiche challendge to themselves Papisticall or Pontificall authoritie 


in the Church. Take in good parte according to youre accustomed 
gentlenesse, these things written in deede upon the sodaine without 
studie, but not withoute a care of brotherly love. As concerning 
our matters, I have written more in those letters which you shal 
receive from the Marte. D. Bullinger saluteth you moste hartely. 
My Wife also hath her hartie commendacions to you and to your 
wife. Fare you well at Tigurin, the 1 1 of September. 

Anno 1566. 

Rodolphe Gualter, Minister of the Churche of God at Tigurin. 


Reuerende father, besides that your letters came very late to my 
handes, it is come to passe for wante of messengers, that I also have 
beene faine to come a day after the faire in answering. But I 
yeelde you most hearde thanckes, both for your most courteous 
letters, and also for your small gift (as you list to terme it) which 
notwithstanding I wil gladly keepe, as a moste excellent and 
acceptable pledge of youres. And as for those Annotations of 
mine : I wil then take them to be suche as you reporte them to be, 
when they shall haue throughly bene corrected by the benefite of 
you, and other learned men. As concerning our matters : all 
things are yet well and quiet among us, through the singular mercie 
and goodnesse of almightie God : whereas else this Churche mighte 
well crie out, that saying of Dauids, They haue hated me withoute 
cause. But it is well with us that we be ill spoken of, and falsly 
accused for Christes names sake. In which behalfe it is an honoure 
to suffer any thing. Some, (that is to wit the papists and obiquit- 
aries ^) not only blame us, but also banne us as wicked folkes and 
heretickes : and other some (namely suche as are ashamed to have 
their loosenesse restrained by oure discipline suche as it is) finde 
faulte with us and abhorre us as ouer seuere. But I hope the day 
will come, that we shall iustifie oure case in bothe the poynts of 
this accusation, before the iudgement seat of the sonne of God. 
For as touching oure doctrine, we are out of doubte : it agreeth 
with Gods word : and I think it wil not be hard for us to shew, y* 

^ Edmund Grindal, Bp. of London. 

' CW" Obiquitarles are they which maintaine that Christe is every wher by 
the bodely presence of his manhoode. 


ye simplicitie of y® ceremonies of this church, (wherof we repent 
us not at all) and the whole order of oure Discipline, are drawne 
out of the same fountaine, allbeit that we willingly acknowledge 
our selves to be farre off from that, which ought to haue bene 
established ere this. Moreouer, what heauing and craftie dealing 
there hathe beene a late at Augusta, agaynste all the Churches of 
these partes, and consequently also againste youre Churches, and 
the Churches of Fraunce, all which we thincke to agree with us in 
all poyntes of doctrine : I suppose it hathe bene reported unto you 
already. Which exceeding great mischeefe was such, as though it 
should not touch you at all, yet ought it of right to moue you also, 
for the defacing of so many and so great Churches. This therefore 
was the cause, that the last winter, at the Churches of these our 
quarters, (only Basill excepted, bicause that they a little afore, had 
by themselues set forthe a lyke confession in all poyntes, in effecte 
of matter,) did giue our consent to the common confession written 
by our brethren of Zurike, which great consent we hope wil yeeld 
most plentiful! frute of concord. Afterwarde all the French 
Churches folowed this president, by putting forth a record of their 
agreing with us : now if it may please the Lord to graunt thus 
muche more, that your & the Scottish churches might also testifie 
your agreeing with this common confession of oures, by some 
publike wryting : no doubt but it would greatly auaile to the 
hindering, or rather to the utter ouerthrowing of theyr deuices, 
which inforce our condemnation, uppon trust of multitude rather 
than of reasons : and also woulde stirre up manye men to trie oute 
the true religion, who are nowe borne in hande, that oure Churches 
are at debate among themselues with innumerable discordes: 
that I may say nothing of manye weake ones, whom (it is not to 
be doubted of) should be very muche strengthened by the consent 
of manye nations. Considering therefore reuerende Father, that 
this thing is very profytable for the Churche of God, and righte 
agreeable to the charge of youre selfe, and your reuerende fellowe 
offycers: I thincke it a worthy matter for you, not only to take 
care of, but also to preferre by all meanes to the queenes Majestic : 
which charge I hartely desyre you, yea, and for Chrystes owne 
sake beseeche you, that you will not refuse to goe throughe wyth, 
for the Churche of God. But for as muche as I am once entred 
into this matter, I beseeche you of your gentlenesse Reuerend 
Father, that you will gently and patiently suffer me to proceede 


a little further in a matter not altogither unlike this, sith no 
ambition (as God helpe me) but only good will towardes the 
Englishe churches, dothe moue me thereunto. There is a report 
brought unto us, and the same is confyrmed by certaine mennes 
letters both out of Fraunce and out of Germany, that in your 
countrie, many Ministers of gods worde, (who otherwise wer 
faultlesse as well in life as in doctrine) were put out of offyce by 
the queenes maiestie, euen with the consent of you Bishops, bicause 
they refused to subscribe to some certaine Ceremonies. The 
summe of which Iniunctions is reported to haue bene this. That 
they should admit againe, not only the garments which were the 
Priestes badges in poperie : but also certaine ceremonies which 
haue bene growne oute of kinde long agoe into moste fylthie 
superstitions, as crossing and kneeling at the Communicating of 
the Lordes supper, and other things of the same stampe. It is 
reported moreouer (which is muche greuouser, that Women are 
permitted to minister Baptisme, that there is authoritie giuen to the 
Prince to bring in moe Ceremonies uppon them. And fynally that 
all power of ordering Ecclesiasticall matters, is giuen to the 
Bishoppes only, wythoute giuing the Ministers of seuerall Churches, 
so muche as any leaue to complayne. I wrote agayne to those 
freendes of mine, That the church of God did perswade it selfe farre 
other wise, bothe of the queenes maiestie, and also of so many 
learned and religious bishops : and moreouer that at the least many 
of these things were (to my seeming) eyther utterly deuised by some 
malicious persons, or at least wise miswrested. Neuerthelesse I 
beseeche you of your courtesye, that we maye haue some conference 
of these matters betwixte oure selues. I knowe there be two 
opinions concerning the Reformation of Churches. For there be 
some of opinion, that nothing at all should be added to the 
simplicitie of the Apostolike church, and therfore that (wythout 
exception) all things are to be done by us which the Apostles did, 
and whatsoeuer the Church that succeeded next after the Apostles, 
bathe added to y^ former things, they thincke they must be 
abolyshed at once. Contrariwise, there be other some, which thinke 
that certaine of the olde ceremonies ouermore, are partly to be held 
stil as profytable and necessary : and partly to be borne withall for 
Concordes sake, although they be not necessary. As for my part, 
I am out of doubt, that the Doctrine of the Apostles was most 
perfect in all poyntes, and that it is not lawful! for any man to take 


any thing from it, or to putte any thing to it. But as for theyr 
Ceremonies. I iudge a little other wise of them. For fyrst of all, 
it is certaine that at the fyrst springing up of churches : not even 
the Apostles themselues were able to stablishe whatsoeuer they 
thought expedient, and therfore that they proceeded steppe by 
steppe, according as theyr ordaining of Deacons sheweth : in so 
muche as they did suffer for a time euen many Jewishe things, like 
as it appeareth in theyr Stories. Againe, who doubteth but that the 
Apostles hadde a singular regarde of theyr owne times, and also of 
the places and persones, in outwarde ceremonies ? in so much as it 
is no likelyhoode, that the same ceremonies were in all poyntes 
obserued in all places, according as it appeareth wel inough bi the 
notable Epistle of Irene unto Victor. Besydes thys, euen very 
necessitie hathe abolyshed some traditions of theirs, as those 
common refections. Wherfore I am of opinion, that all that hath 
ben don by the Apostles in case of ceremonies, is not by and by, 
nor without exception to be followed for a rule. Neyther do I 
maruell that those olde Fathers, upon consyderation had to theyr 
owne tymes, haue abated some of those fyrst things, or put some- 
what to them. And to conclude chaunged some. But euen they 
them selues that I may speake with theyr leaue plainly what I 
thinke, had not as me seemeth so good consideration of Christian 
symplicitie, and purenesse as was meete. For fyrste they oughte to 
have considered, that the abolishing of the Ceremonies of Moses by 
little and little, was not to sette them uppe againe in time by 
another pretence : and also that the Heathenish ceremonies were to 
be plucked up by the rotes, so as there might not any print of 
heathnishnes remain to be sene, were it never so smal, according 
as Moses aduisedly charged the Israelites at theyr entring into the 
land of Chanaan. And therfore I think them to haue sinned sore, 
how be it not uppon malice which haue folowed both the law of 
Moses and also the manner of the heathen, for a rule in ordaining 
the ceremonies of the churche : which thing howe busily they haue 
done, I suppose there is no man ignorant. Againe, they ought to 
haue considered this also, that the abolishing of the ceremonies of 
the law, was not to bring in another bondage of seruice upon it (for 
that had not ben a taking away of the yoke of the law, but an 
exchange of it) but rather to the ende that all men should behold 
Chryst exhibited, from henceforth unclothed, and walking in the 
cleere lyght, and nomore darkened with any figures or shadowes. 


For (according as Austin complaining very greeuously of the same 
matter, hathe rightly deemed) this same is the cause why oure Lord 
ordained both fewer (that is to witte but two, in stede of all the 
other former whiche were innumerable) and also simpler and 
euidenter sacraments of the new testament. And therfore I say 
againe, that they sinned righte greeuously, as ofte as they brought 
any Sacramentalles, (that is to say any ceremonies to import 
signification of spiritual things) into the church of God. Therfore, 
at one word for all I am of opinion, that whatsoeuer hath ben 
conuerted into the rites and customes of the chrystians, eyther from 
the Jewes or from the Painims, without Christes ordinance, and the 
assured example of the Apostles : and likewise, that all Sacramentall 
ceremonies ought to be thrust out of the church at once, wherunto 
they could neuer be brought by any right : and that the church 
cannot be restored to hir natiue beautie, so long as they continue 
in it. Now remaine only suche ceremonies as pertaine only unto 
comelinesse : In whiche case I am compelled eftsone to finde lacke 
of discretion in many, euen of the auncientest bishops. For fyrst 
of all, as concerning the ministration of the sacraments wheras all 
that euer is done there, hath couert importance, and it is no more 
lawfull for men to ordaine sacraments, than to deuise new promisses 
of saluation : and wheras Christ the author both of the worde and 
of the sacraments, would of set purpose that the ceremonies of 
them should be very simple & very few, insomuch that he prescribed 
a rule certaine of these holy doings, unto his true shepherdes in 
these woordes : Doe ye this : I cannot wonder inoughe what reason 
should moue diuers men to be of opinion, that all the whole 
furniture, wherwith euen y^ ancientest fathers of all thought them- 
selues to garnish Baptim and the Lordes supper, should be helde 
still with toothe and naile : and some also should thinke, that it 
ought to be set up againe in places where it is taken away as it 
ought to be. If antiquitie be required : Christ is he that gaue us 
the Prophets and Apostles : and again, by the Apostles, shepherds 
and teachers. If authori[ty] ^ be required : Chryste is the founda- 
tion, the Apostles are the maister builders, and the shepherdes and 
teachers are bound to build golde and siluer uppon that foundation. 
Therefore lette the golde and siluer abide still : and as for the hay 
and chaffe, seing that the day of the Lorde hathe discouered them, 
why I pray you do we build them up againe ? Nay verily, why 
* The word comes at the end of a line, and is unfinished. 


striue we so much for chaffe and stubble, or rather euen for more 
trifling things than chaffe and stubble be : and if not utterly, yet at 
ye least wise for ye moste part, why neglecte we y^ substantial! and 
pretious building in deede ? But this complaint perchaunce agreed 
better to the times wherein the fyrst successors of the Apostles 
liued, than to this doting olde age of the present world. For I 
esteeme the sinnes of those fathers as vertues in comparaison of 
theyr unlearned, heedelesse, and ambitious successors. For by 
what other termes should I call them, who (besides that they haue 
made as great adoe aboute ceremonies only, as aboute the whole 
summe of Religion, wheruppon hathe insued that horrible dis- 
fyguring of all the parts of doctrine) seme to haue had the ouer 
ruling of Goddes house to none other intent, but to ouerthrowe it 
quite, being already decayed. They that could not away wyth the 
plaine fashions of the Apostles, haue added a thousand ceremonies 
to the baptim of the new instructed. It lyked some to haue them 
anoynted, as though they should haue gone to wrestling : some to 
haue them plucked out of Sathans power by certain coniurings and 
breathings, as folk passing out of the diuels dominion into the 
kingdome of God. Some to haue waxe candles giuen them lighted, 
as to folk conueyed out of darknesse into light : some to be clad in 
whyte rayment, as folke that had put of the old man and put on the 
newe : and other some to haue milke and honey giuen them to 
taste aforehand, as folke comming by a newe kinde of life. All 
which things if I listed to go through with, what ende should there 
be of theyr masking toyes, rather then christen ceremonies ? But 
(say they) so it behoued the heathen to be allured unto Christ. As 
who would say, that Christ and the Apostles after Christe, coulde not 
haue prouided these things. For surely, as for those that make the 
apostles authors of these toyes, they are not once worthe the 
disprouing, howe aunciente so euer they bee. I pray you what a 
thing is this, that whereas it is the propertie of christian reHgion to 
do nothing in huddermudder (for it is a trick of Sathans to shunne 
the light) : yet notwithstanding, many of those auncientest thought 
it good to hide the holy misteries of the christians, as if they had 
bene the misteries of Ceres, in so muche as they admitted not the 
newly instructed to the syght of them : yea, & as for that whole 
action, wherin looke whatsoeuer thing was fygured under a fewe 
plaine tokens, the Lorde himselfe bothe willed and commaunded 
the same to be openly preached and published by his word, alowed 


and expounded in such a tongue as all men understode, according 
as he himself was wont to do : they transformed it into certaine 
secrete conceites, and into certain ceremonies scarcely understode 
of many of the priestes themselues. But farre greater was the 
negligence of the bishops that succeeded : who conueyed that thing 
to the Chrysten mennes infants, which was ordained for theyr sakes 
that passed out of Painimrie into Christianitie, after traynement in 
the fyrst principles of Religion, being already men growne. If any 
man doute whether this be so or no : I pray you let him consyder 
the maner of baptim according as the papists kepe it, and yet still 
by tradition from furthest antiquity, sauing that they haue added 
a few things of theyr owne, and held stil the straunge language, 
whiche at that time was common in the West and the South. For 
there they that are to be baptized, are bidden not onely to render 
a reason of theyr faythe : but also come to be baptized. Which 
thing althoughe manie, (among whome Austin himselfe is one) haae 
gone aboute to excuse by some qualifycation : saying that the 
Godfathers and Godmothers are demaunded, and doe make answer 
in the childrens names : yet notwithstanding, who seeth not, that 
this is but a weake deuice, to cloke the thing by some coloure, 
which was crept in by abuse ? for I beseeche you, if baptim may 
not be ministred, without present under taking for the faith of the 
partie that is to be baptized : (for except that be graunted, wherfore 
I pray you is the childe that comes to christening, demaunded of 
his faythe :) to what purpose is baptim hastened ? and why rather 
do we not delay baptim, untill such time as those that are to be 
baptized, maye be able to professe theyr owne faythe, as the 
Catabaptistes do, which God forbid. And I am oute of doubte, 
that thys negligence of the Bishops, whome it behooued of necessytie 
to haue putte a difference betweene the christenyng of babes, and 
the chrystening of men growne, as in respecte of some outwarde 
ceremonies) hathe caused many to delaye the christening of theyr 
children the longer, howe be it that they dyd not well in so doing. 
Notwithstanding, that the sayde error was not espied in olde time, 
(no not euen of manye Byshops) euen thys one thing declareth. 
That Nazyanzene being a Bishoppes sonne, was aboue twentie yeres 
old ere he was christened. Muche lesse had thys opinion taken 
roote, of the necessitie of Chrystening unto saluation, whiche opinion 
the Byshoppes of Africke broughte in afterwarde in resysting 
Pelagius. And the cause whye I make mention of these matters, 



is for that (among other things) it is sayde that in youre Countrye 
the little Babe that is to be Christened, is demaunded of his faythe 
by the Minister. And I woulde gladlye learne of you reuerende 
Father, uppon what probable reason, or uppon what reason that 
pertaineth to the edifying of Goddes Church, the same custome is 
grounded. As for the signing of folke with the crosse, althoughe 
it be very auncient : yet surely I see not what profyte it can bryng : 
and all be it the same is wonderfully, and altogither ouer reachingly 
commended (speciallye by Chrysostome,) as a certaine summe of 
the christen Religion : yet notwithstanding in as muche as it is not 
grounded uppon the authoritie of Gods woorde, or uppon any 
example of the Apostles, (for I make no reckening of unauthorised 
stuflfe) that is to say, forasmuche as it is utterly destitute of Gods 
woorde, and pertaineth not in anye wise unto comlynesse, but (to 
be shorte) hathe bene the fyrste opener of the gappe unto that 
mooste abhominable superstition and worshipping of the crosse, the 
horriblest of all Idolatries : I can lesse fynde in my hearte that it 
shoulde be nombred among those things indifferent, than the brasen 
serpent of Ezechias, whose example it would become all christian 
Princes to folow, chefely in this case, that is to say in ouerthrowing 
the Idols of crosses and crucifixes. But whereas childrenne that 
are to be christened, are offered in the open congregation of the 
church, rather in honest than in costly apparell : where as there is 
used a certaine conuenient forme of prayer, and exposition of 
baptim : wheras the godfathers and godmothers are present to 
take charge of the holy bringing up of the child : and finally wheras 
the children be sprinkled with cleare water taken reuerently in 
cleane handes according to the forme appointed by Christe : con- 
sidering that these rites be simple, honest, and in no wise magical), 
and finally suche as can not giue any occasion of superstition : who 
is he that dares condemne them, except he wil be reproved by the 
expresse words of Paule, who giueth commaundement, that in the 
Lords house all things should be done fitly and orderly ? Further- 
more as touching the Lords supper, who can refraine teares, to 
declare howe miserably it is transformed into that olde stagelike 
frisking & horrible Idol gadding ? That the indiscrete zele of suche 
as were not contented with the simplenesse of Christ and his 
Apostles, opened the fyrste gap to this corruption. I thincke it 
needeth not many wordes to proue it, for as much as bothe the olde 
and the newe seruices, as well of the East as of the West, which are 


so muche the uncleaner, as they be done with more solemnitie, doe 
moste manifestly proue the matter to be so. And heere I dout 
not, but you haue well marked how wily sathan have shewed 
himselfe. For who would not thinke, that the using of an altar, or 
of some table were an indifferent thing ? Therfore by little and 
little, Altares were brought in in stead of tables : verely bicause the 
common tables, (which neuerthelesse the auncient fathers used eueii 
for theyr bankets) seemed not to agree well with so stately service. 
Heereuppon sathan tooke fyrste occasion to transforme this holy 
action, (which was ordained, not to giue, but to receiue Christe) 
into a propitiatorie sacrifice, that is to say, moste shamefully to 
treade under foote the deathe of Christ, which is there declared. 
They were not content with common and plaine songs, and ther- 
fore under pretence of beutifying this holy action, that busie and 
curious prickesong & descanting was brought in, more mete for 
stage playes, for the most part, then for an holy action, and more 
fyt to delite the eare, then to stirre up the minde. A thing surely 
for this respect not only unprofitable, but also very hurtfull, that in 
that noise, no man coulde well marke what was sayde : so that the 
matter it selfe dothe plainly conuince, that the true worship of God 
was by this meanes especially transformed into vaine, and at the 
length mere stagelike songs. A simple and common furniture 
pleased them not, nor was agreeable, therfore they sought out 
marble, they guilded walles, they prouided vesselles of golde and 
siluer, and theyr ministers beganne to be attired in pretious and 
Bishoppelike, yea, and Emperourelike garments, and all forsothe 
to honoure the sacramente with all. And so forthwith these were 
the meanes and instrumentes to foster and cherishe riotousnesse, 
to neglecte true charitie, and to be shorte, to bring in folish and 
stagelike furniture. They were not content with a simple breaking 
of the breade, whiche notwithstanding is not the least parte of this 
action, therfore little round cakes began to be giuen to each, and 
the order apointed of the Lord, was abrogated. It pleased them 
not to giue the breade into theyr hands while they were sytting or 
standing, as in olde times it was, but it seemed them good to haue 
it holden up, as it were, to worship it, and afterwarde was kneeling 
used, and chose rather to haue a morsell put in to theyr mouthe, 
for more reuerence sake forsothe. And that this was the fyrst 
beginning of that moste horrible bread worship, whiche can not 
yet be abolyshed, who seeth not ? Nowe then seeing these things 

£2 1 


are so, and the moste dolefull and sorowfull euente of these honors 
unseasonably and preposterouslye giuen to oure holy things dothe 
more than suffyciently teache us, how far better it were for us to 
content oure selves with the symple institution of Christe, then with 
an untowardly zeale to fashion or deuise anye of these things : he 
doth best of all in my minde, which abolysheth these things, 
(althoughe not wicked of themselues, yet as not necessary, and 
very little profytable, although they be well used, but very much 
hurtfull, as the most heauie state of churches sheweth and setteth 
forth), with no lesse earnestnesse, then moste euidente Idolatrie. 
For I pray you, if there were a stone set for some purpose in the 
parting of two wayes, whereat notwithstanding, all men, unlesse 
they were very circumspecte, mighte fall with daunger of their Hues, 
whether were it better to take that stone at once out of the way, or 
to let it alone, and daily to warne the passengers on which hande 
they were beste to goe, if they would not stumble ? For if theyr 
directours should be either slouthfuU, or not circumspect inoughe, 
in vayne might they admonish a great number. Notwithstanding 
we thinke that rites which are necessary for order and comelynesse, 
are to be retained, as, that uppon certaine dayes, and at certaine 
houres, the sacramentall sygnes, being taken oute of cleane vessels, 
be reuerently giuen and receyued, and what so euer is of like sorte, 
pertaining rather to an honest, than an ambicious manner. Nowe 
if a man aske me, whether I thinke that nothing at all of these 
things, which are of themselues indifferent, may be retained, at 
least for the weakes sake, and whether the ministery oughte to be 
forsaken, rather then any suche thing shoulde be obserued, especially 
if this caution be namely added, that these things are eyther broughte 
in, or as yet tolerate not properly to binde mennes consciences, but 
for other good consyderations. I answere, that I thinke not, that 
congregations may be forsaken for garments and cappes, or some 
suche like mere indifferent and mene thing. But fyrst of all, 
I think that there are many things, which of themselues being 
indifferent, yet for an opinion of worshippe annexed unto them, 
can skarsly or not at all be eschued, ought to be counted amongst 
superstitions, or surely amongste very needy occasyons of super- 
stition. Moreouer this is to be obserued, that many things may be 
tolerated for the weake, which notwithstanding oughte not to be 
renued, after they are once taken away. For that this were not 
to take away an infyrmitie : but rather, in some respect, to restore 


it when it is taken awaye, and not to call it backe, after it is 
departed, so that I maruell not, that many men in this case shewe 
them selues harder in the restoring of certaine things, then perhaps 
they would haue bene at the beginning, when they were in hand, 
to take them away. Moreouer and besides. I ad this that to my 
thinking, weakenes is falsly pretended in that kingdome, wherin 
so many yeres already, the gospell hath bene preached and receiued, 
yea and confirmed wyth the bloud of so many excellent martyres. 
If so be that the Apostle did rightly chide the Galathians, for that 
when they had begon in the spirite, they went backe againe to the 
fleshe, how much more may it be lawfull to say the same of you 
Englishe men, if peraduenture after that ye haue begun in the 
spirite, you fall backe againe (as God forbid) not as they did to 
the fleshe, that is to say, to Moises his ceremonies, whereof God 
was the author, but to the trifles and trashe of mennes traditions. 
Last of all, I will not be afraide to say this, trusting to your equitie. if 
they doe amisse which had rather depart from theyr congregations, 
then to suffer those things to be thruste uppon them againste theyr 
conscience, that they are in greate fault before God and his Angels 
which had rather abide to haue flockes depriued of pastors, and 
foundations laide of moste horrible confusion by the pastors forsaking 
of theyr congregations, then to see ministers otherwise without fault, 
to use rather thys then that apparell: and that in some places 
there shoulde rather be no supper giuen to the hungrie sheepe, 
then that kneling should be omitted. Which things, if they shuld 
be there done amongste you, (as God forbidde that I should thinke 
that they are done) surely they would be beginnings, not of former, 
but of far greter calamities. Againe I beseeche you, reuerende 
father, that if I offend heerein, you would paciently bear with me 
so offending not of ambition or malice, but (as the Lorde knoweth) 
of rudenes and unskilfulnes. If it be true that is commonly reported, 
and I am not yet persuaded, that baptisme is priuately permitted 
to women amongst you, I can not tel what is to go backe from 
the gole to the barriers, if this be not. For first of all from whence 
sprang this most filthy error, but from a grose ignorance of the 
matter of the sacrament. Who so euer is not washed in water, 
is condemned say they which are the patrones of this prophanation 
of baptisme. If it be so, the saluation of infants shall come, not 
from the couenaunt of god, (which notwithstanding is the endoubted 
ground of our saluation) but from the scale annexed unto the 


couenaunte (and that not to make it more certaine in it selfe, but 
rather to certify us of it. And that more wicked is, the saluation 
of infants shal wholely consist in the diligence or negligence of ye 
parents. But seeing, y* excellent seruaunt of God, D. Peter Martyr, 
as you right well knowe, reuerend father, a good while a goe 
disputed of this matter at large in his commentaries wrytten to 
that godly king Edwarde, and that, as I thinke, with the consent 
of the whole Englishe churche in those dayes, I woulde not now 
at large discourse uppon this matter. This only I say, if that 
reporte shoulde be true, it were greatly to be lamented to see them 
now to tourne back as it were to the barryers, which shoulde haue 
rather bene come euen to the gole, especially hauing had suche 
guides and masters. But if those things shall be true, whiche 
seeme not to me probable, that Metropolitanes practise and put in 
use those most filthy abuses which are more intollerable then ought 
else in the church of Antichrist, as pluralities of benefices, licences 
of not resydences, to contracte Matrimonie, and for eating of fleshe, 
and suche like, as it were surely not a corruption of christianitie, 
which I speake with horror, but a manifest falling away from Christ, 
and therfore they were not to be condemned, but rather to be 
praised : which would oppose them selues against suche endeuors. 
Moreouer by what right, whether ye respect the word of God, or 
all the olde Canons, may either the ciuil Magistrate by himself, 
where congregations are already erected and established, bring in 
uppon them any new rites, or abrogate the olde : or the Bishoppes 
wythoute the iudgement and consent of theyr Eldership, of duetie 
ordaine anything, I haue not yet learned. But bicause I see that 
these two plagues, that is to say, the dishonest and ambitious flattery 
of former Bishops, partly abusing the vertuous Princes, and partly 
seruing theyr euil affections and uices haue utterly undone the 
Church, until the matter came to this passe, that the mightyest 
of the Metropolitanes of the West, by the iuste iudgemente of God, 
so punishing Magistrates and Bishops, had scratched and rauished 
unto himselfe all matters bothe diuine and humane. I must needes 
confesse that I am astonished & amased, so often as I think of 
these things, and I forsee, that eyther the same, or more greeuous 
punishments do agayne hang ouer the most part of people, which 
at the first, with great affection, embraced the gospel, and now by 
little and little fall from it. And I dout not but the good in what 
place so euer, doe in like sort lament, whome the Lord heare, and 


for his Sonne Jesus Christes sake giue unto Kings and Princes 
a true, godly, and religious mind, and graunt them good and stout 
counsellors, & to the gouernors of his church, especially his holy 
spirite, and most aboundant knowledge and zeale, & moreouer 
increase and preserue the people which haue already professed the 
true fayth in sinceritie of doctrine and rites, and godly manners. 
You see (reuerende father) howe farre this heate, as it were hatha 
enforced me. But I beseeche you, for and accordinge to youre 
good nature, to take this my doinge in good parte, and consider 
that it is the token of good loue, that suche as loue one another, 
are full of care and pensiuenes for theyr frendes, euen then, when 
they seme to be in best case. But nowe of these matters too muche. 
It remayneth that I commend in most instant wise unto your 
worthye and fatherlie goodnesse the Frenche Churche, whiche next 
unto God, and hir maiestie, is moste bounde unto yow, that if so 
be the ennemies of the Gospell, bring to passe, that in all places, 
and by all meanes possible, they do maliciously go aboute, the 
poore banyshed maye yet at the leaste haue some refuge & succoure 
amongest yow. I had thought to haue wrytten letters to the same 
purpose, (so bolde some tyme I am in my follies) to other, bothe 
Ecclesiasticall & also noble men, of the realme of England, and 
peraduenture to hir owne maiestie, but I with helde my selfe for 
manye considerations. If peraduenture yow shall perceaue that 
this my litde labor may profite, I wil not be afrayd, God willyng, 
not only to venture my esdmation, but my life also, rather then 
omitte any occasion whereby the kingdome of Christe, may either 
be preserued, or encreased. Farewell, reuerend father, and as you 
were wont, continue your loue & prayers for me and this whole 
Church and schole. Geneue v. Cal. Jul. m.d. Ixvi. 

Yours most assured in the Lord Theodore Beza minister of the 
word in the Church of Geneve. 

England repent. Bishops relent, 

returne while you haue space, 

Time is at hand, by truth to stand, 

if you haue any grace. 

Joyne now in one, that Christ alone, 

by scepter of his word : 

May beare the stroke : least you prouoke 

his heauy hand and sword. 








Grace and Peace from God, etc — 

Suche hath alwayes (deare brethren) bene the corrupt nature 
of the wicked and ungodlye of this world, that as yet they could 
never away with suche, as would either but simply tell them of, or 
frankly and freely reprove them for, their manifest sinnes and 
ungodlinesse. Abner ^ could not abide to hear Isboseth tell him, 
of his going into Rizpah his father Saules concubine. Ahab'^ 
hateth Michaiah the sonne of Imlah, for not prophesying (as he 
saith) good unto him. The^ people cried out in Esayas time 
to the seers and Prophets, speake flattering things to us. And the 
priestes & people of Anathoth (which was a town about a thre 
myles distant from Jerusalem*, and belonged to the sonnes of 
Aaron) wil Jeremiah for the saveguard ^ of his life not to prophecy 
unto them in the name of the Lorde. Micha ^ telleth us that the 
people of his time, liked well such Prophets, as would prophecy 
unto them of wine and strong drink. And notable is that saying 
of Amos "^ : They have hated him that rebuked in the gate ; and 
they abhorre him that speaketh uprightly. And what other cause 
there shuld be why those two treatises, that were lately written 
& imprinted, in the last Parliament time, justly craving a redresse 
and Reformation of many abuses and corruptions, yet in the 
english church remayning, shuld of so many be misliked, and the 
authors thereof so cruelly entreted, & straightly imprisoned as they 
are, cannot of great nombers be gathered, unlesse it be, for that 
they so flatly & plainly (as* god's worde hath taught them) lay 
the fault where the fault is, & so unreverently handle our most 
reverent fathers. But I pray you tell me. Is plaine speache 
and vehement wordes so evill.? Whye blame you not Isaiah' 

* 2 Sam. iii. 8. ^ i Reg. xxii. 8. ^ Esa. xxx. lo. 

* Jos. xxi. i8. ' Jere. xi. 21. ^ Micha ii. 5, ir. 

' Amos V. 10. * 2 Sam. xii. 7 ; i Reg. xviii. 18 ; Mat. xiv. 4. 

* Esa. Ivi. 10, 


that termeth the ministers of his age, blinde watchmen, dumbe 
dogges, greedy dogges? What say you to Jeremiah \ who 
nameth the pastors beasts? How wil you deale with EsechieP, 
that nameth the Prophets conspiratoures, greedy raveners, and 
devourers like roring Lyons? How shall Hoseah^ be intreated, 
that compareth the Priestes to them that secreately lye in waight 
for a man? What shall become of Micah*, that can vouchsafe 
to give them no better names than disceivers and biters of the 
Lordes people with their teethe? But howe will you handle 
Zachariah ", that in vehemencie of spirite calleth them Idols ? 
Surely I can shew you. If they were living you wold cary them 
to ye Marshalsea, White Lion, the Kings Benche, the Gatehouse, 
or other prisons ; yea (and rather then they shoulde be unprisonned) 
to Newgate with them as fast as they can trotte. But seeing they 
are not living so courteously to be used, you will answer the matter 
with a flymme flamme, and say the Prophets speake not of you, 
but of the ennemies of God and his truthe. As for you, you will 
say, we love God well, we regard his truth, we preache his Gospell, 
we love the Churche, etc. When you so say, belike you have 
forgotten Jeremias saying; Trust not in lying words ^ (saying the 
temple of the Lorde, the temple of the Lorde : this is the temple 
of the Lord. But let us graunt that your answer were currant, 
& woulde goe for good coyne. Are you so tender yee loftye 
Rabbies, that you maye not bee touched ? muste you not be roughly 
spoken unto, when you offend and commit wickednesse ? I am 
sure S. Paule giveth this rule. Them that sinne rebuke openly'^, 
that the rest also may feare. And loke through out all the 
Evangelists, and you shall see how vehemently Christe Jesus and 
his deale with the Pharises, your great graundsires and famouse 
forefathers ; whose children ye are wythout dout, and as like them, 
as if you were spued out of their mouthes. All their workes, they 
did and to be scene of men, and therfore they made their philacto- 
ries brode, and made long the fringes of their garments *. When 
they gave their almes, they would have trompettes blowne before 
them®. When they prayed, they would doe it in the sinagogues 
and corners of the streates '°. When they fasted, they disfigured 
their faces", they tithed the minte and the rewe, and all manner 

^ Jere. x. 21. ' Ezec. xxii. 25. ^ Ose. vi. 9. * Mich. iii. 5. 

* Zach. xi. 17. • Jere. vii. 4. '' Tim. v. 20. ^ Math, xxiii. v. 

' Math. vi. 2. " Math. vi. 5. ^^ Math. vi. 16. 


of hearbes \ they strained out a gnatte & swalowed a Cammell ', 
they made cleane the utter side of the cuppe and the platter % 
they bounde heavye burthens and greevous to be borne, and laide 
them on mennes shoulders, but they themselves woulde not move 
them with one of their fingers*, they were more rigorous about 
their owne traditions, as washings, purifyings, etc., then Goddes 
commaundements ^ These were the steppes and proceedings of 
youre forefathers, in which you walke as justly, as if the waye were 
chalked before you. Shewe me any difference if you can : not- 
withstanding thoughe these men bragged and boasted muche of 
their uprighte conversation ®, though they sate in Moises seate, and 
taughte the lawe, etc. '', Yet I say looke howe sharply and vehemently 
they are in the scriptures reproved. Doth not John the Baptist 
call them and the Saduces, generation of vipers ^ ? doth not Christ 
call them a wicked and adoulterous generation^, hipocrites ^°, 
blinde guides", painted sepulchers^^ murtherers children ^^ the 
divils sonnes ^* ? Dothe not Paule call them that boasted muche of 
the lawe, dogges, evill workers, concision, ennemies of the crosse 
of Christ ^^ ? The vehement speche then of these men towardes you, 
is not so evill as you would make it. They foUowe therein (as 
appeareth) the examples of the Apostles and Prophettes, and Christe 
himselfe. So that if you woulde condemne these men therefore, 
you must nedes condemne the other also. But be it that it 
be evil, let it be graunted that many are offended, & peradventure 
that some loke for a salve for their sore, & a plaister for their 
wound. Well, nowe to recompence ^* that supposed evil with good 
(according to the rule of Gods woord) and to please them without 
amends, (according to the common saying) that without cause 
have been greved, and to lay a plaister where is no sore place, 
thankfully receive these freendly admonitions and gentle exhorta- 
tions ensuing. In penning whereof, we have in charity framed 
ourselves" to be come all things unto all men, that at the least 
we mighte winne some to Christ; and have therfore thought 
meete to publishe this small woorke, wherein the bishops and 

^ Lnk. xi. 43. ' Mat. xxiii. 24. ^ Mat. xxiii. 25. 

* Mat. xxiii. 4. » Ma. xv. 2, 3. * Luke xviii. 11. 

^ Math, xxiii. 2. ^ Math. iii. 7. ^ Mat. xii. 39. 

" Math, xxiii. 13, 14. " Mat. xxiii. 16. " Mat. xxiii. 27. 

" Mat. xxiii. 31. »♦ John viii. 44. ^^ Phi. iii. 2, 18. 

" Rom. xii. 17. ''' i Cor. ix. 22. 


prelates of this realm (much like to galled horsses, that cannot 
abide to be rubbed) are frendly admonished of their duetie towards 
God, and of love towardes their brethren. I pray God it may take 
such roote in their harts, as, that they knowing what that good, 
acceptable and perfect wil of God ^ is, may have power from above, 
from him that is the father of lightes, wyth whome is no variable- 
nesse, neither shadowing by turning '^ to accomplish and performe 
the same, and cease to persecute their brethern. Least going on 
forwarde in their sinnes their dung be with more bitterness of 
words and plainnesse of speach throwne into their faces ^ Fare- 
well in the Lorde (good christian reader) and pray that thou 
maiste use these and all other things that are written in a tender 
affection towardes the sinceritie of Goddes gospell, to the glory of 
his name, and to thine owne edification and profit. 

From my chamber in London, this 30 of September, in 
Anno. 1572. 

* Rom. xii. 2. ^ Jam. i. 17. s Mala. ii. 3. 


Although both through lacke of learning and experience, I be 
farre short in abilitie, to exhort or dehort in any respect, especially 
sithe the matter dothe concerne those that are or shoulde be bothe 
wel learned and experienced themselves, and thereby understand 
more than I can advise : yet being greeved in conscience, and 
somewhat I finde in you blame worthy, and seeing you bende 
not your knowledge to amende that in you is amisse : pardon 
me though I presume to admonish you in brotherly sort, as my 
slender skill will permit. But justly it may be objected to me 
that ther are many farre more fitte and able, then I to deale in 
suche a matter, and sith they do not, it may be thought great 
arrogancie in me to intermeddle in the same : In deede my want 
of abilitie, as before, so againe I confesse, and the great plentie 
of others that are farre more able, I muste nedes acknowledge, and 
withall my heart I wishe better willes in men added to their skill, 
then (the Lorde knoweth) are to be found amongst us : as for 
arrogancie to be imputed to me in this case, surely I hope there 
shall not, for, God is my witnesse, I only seeke to discharge my 
conscience in shewing my dislike of that, wherein as I thinke 
you deale scarse brotherly. If any good fall out hereby I shall 
be glad, and praise God for the same, if none, yet have I satisfied 
mine owne conscience in uttering my minde. 

Thus much for excuse, nowe to the matter. I understand, 
beloved in Christ, of a certaine booke lately published abrode 
by some of our brethren, the matter whereof as it is muche 
misliked, so is the maner not well alowed of, and bothe so evill 
taken as oure poore brethern for the same feele the paine and 
punishment of most hainous offenders ; if their fault be great yet 
they are our brethren, and therfore by you ought somwhat to 
be regarded, if it be not great, as they are cure brethren, you not 


regarding them, are greatlye to be blamed. And surely for my 
part I thinke your duety were to discover unto the world by the 
warrant of the worde, howe truely or falsly they have written, 
which if you woulde doe in symplicitie of conscience, then perhaps 
their fault would not be so greevous as you make it, wherein 
I durste appeale unto your owne conscience if the matter did not 
touch you so nearly as it doth. For I pray you examine their 
case with me a little: they put forth a Booke in the time of 
Parliament, wherin they disclose the disorders of our church of 
Englande, and humbly desire a Reformation of the same according 
to the rule of God's worde : is this an innovation ? they say there 
oughte to be no Lordlinesse in the ministerie: Bishops livings 
ought to be abated : their great circuites cutte shorter : and them 
selves made equall to their brethren ; is this to overthrowe a whole 
state ? they say the Booke of common Prayer is full of corruptions, 
they mislike with our unlearned ministerie, they finde fault with 
our disorderous Discipline, and putte downe their opinions howe 
these things may be reformed : is this intollerable ? their Boke 
standeth on many pointes needelesse heere to be rehersed, and 
if in any parte therof they shew suche contemptuous disobedience 
towardes our souveraigne as some seeke to enforce, none shall 
thynke them more worthy punishment then I : but to seeke 
reformation of deformities in Gods church, to say the Bishops 
shuld be unlorded and abridged of their huge livings, and to crave 
that all deformities may be cut of and corrected by the prescripte 
rule of Gods holy woorde, is to seeke the furtherance of Gods 
honor and glory, and therefore great blame worthy are they that 
so seeke to aggravate the matter, in charging them with dis- 
obedience to hir Majestic, as thoughe to honor the almightie, 
were to dishonor the Prince. I marvell that menne of learning 
professing christian religion, wil contrary to their profession deale 
so unchristianlye with their brethren : surely in my judgement 
these be very slender arguments to say, these men desire a 
reformation, therefore they seeke innovations, as thoughe it were 
so straunge a matter to have a churche reformed, it is as weake 
an argument to say they woulde have Bishops unlorded, their 
livings abated, the ministerie broughte to his right course, and 
true discipline restored, therefore they would overthrow the whole 
state. A third reason is used, as fond and feeble as the rest : 
and that is, that their dealing is untollerable, surely what it is 


to innovate in your sense I know not, but sure I am, there can 
be no innovation found in that motion that hath any parte of Gods 
woorde to warrant it. For that is farre more auncient than the 
disorders of our church, or any order devised by man, and till 
oure disorders be removed and Christ his auncient orders set 
in place, til we cease to be guided and ruled by men, and yeelde 
to be directed by the word of God, I can not hope of any great 
good in our congregations. As for overthrowe of the whole state, 
truely Englande were in a straunge case, if the state therof, either 
in encrease or decay, dependeth upon the maintenance or over- 
throwe of the Bishops Lordships and livings. And as for your 
argument of intolerablenesse, in deede in one sense it may holde 
true, and that is in that your selves will not tollerate their dealings 
herein, but aggravate their cause to make it seme more grevous 
in the sight of men, otherwise I see no reason how (justly) their 
doing may be thought intolerable, for it maye be counted tollerable 
that Goddes word doth allowe. But whether their booke agree 
or disagree with the word of god, I meane not to deale, leaving 
that to be judged by the learned, as for me, according to my 
greefe conceived, I minde to exhort you to Bishoply & brotherly 
dealing with these that are (althoughe you bear the titles and 
names of Lorde and Lordes grace) felowe pastors and preachers 
of the eternal word of God, together with you. In dede my 
purpose tended somewhat further, but that is cut off by a contrary 
report that I have heard, & therfore leaving this as a thing 
needelesse to be rehearsed I proceede to the matter in hand : 
Your brethren are in prison and have bene these many dayes 
for the booke before named, and which of you all since their 
emprisoning hath opened his mouth to speake one word for 
their deliverie : nay, which of you hath not inveighed bitterly 
against them by worde, since the publishing of that booke ? They 
have bene delt as close prisoners a long time, so that no frende, 
no not skarce their wives may come to them, and which of you 
all have sued for their further libertie ? nay which of you all hath 
not bene ready to hinder their libertie sought for by others ? They 
have lien long at great charge, and they are very pore and needy, 
& which of you all hath opened your pursse to releeve them ? if 
any of you have (though it be your dueties) I muste needees 
commend him or them : if none of you, as it is your dueties, 
I must nedes condemne you. A lamentable case that Lording 


should so lead away the heartes of the learned, that they forget 
their dueties in their calling: for see how fouly you forget your 
selves: Papistes lie abrode in your diocesses untouched, in 
contempt of the truth and her Majesties lawes, refuse to frequent 
divine service and sermons, and yet if anye honest man present 
them unto you, a favorable speeche or letter of some worshipfull 
(though not very godly) in the Shire, shall easely obtaine their 
dispatche. But if any of our brethren strive or endevoure them- 
selves zealously to further the building of Gods temple, and to 
procure reformation of things amisse, it is easelie scene by these, 
what helpe they shoulde have at youre handes, and if a christian 
brother make sute for hym, favoure is hardly obtained, or not 
at all, if it falle oute otherwise, by this I shall be glad and yeelde 
my selfe faultie in saying thus of you. Many leud light bokes 
and ballades flie abrode printed, not only without reprehension, 
but cum privilegio, the authors and printers wherof continue 
daily amongst us without controlment, and yet the Lord by his 
holy scriptures forbiddeth all filthy communication, & therfore 
writing: but if any of our brethren put in Print any booke of 
a godly zeale, that tendeth to the furtherance of Goddes glory 
and sinceritie, and urgeth a reformation of things amisse, he is 
newe fangled, he is not frende to Cesar, he is to be removed 
from amongst the people. Alasse deare brethren what hathe so 
bewitched and blineded you, that you can not perceive, and see 
your owne evil dealing heerein? if the title of Lordship, cast it 
off, if your huge livings, forsake them : be not so wrapped in 
the desire of worldly things, that you neglecte youre dueties in 
your vocation and calling: I can not think so well of you, but 
that I must needes say that you neglect your dueties : I thincke 
surely there is none of you but would be gladde to see reformation 
of things amisse, for some of you I knowe have saide so, neither 
can you deny but that many things are out of order in our 
Church of England, even many things that they make mention 
of in their boke: what then moveth you to make their offence 
so greevous in the sighte of the worlde, or rather why doe you 
not allowe that is good in their booke, seeing they seeke reforma- 
tion therby of that you would gladly see reformed your selves : 
surely I thinke (to speake my conscience) that there are some 
things in the boke, which gladly you wold have omitted, that 
hindereth your liking of the rest, & that is the inveying against 



your Lordships and livings, for most of you would be glad to 
have all remnauntes of Poperie, superstition, and Idolatry e utterly 
removed, but none of you would willingly lose his Lordly dignitie 
and living. Hinc illae lachrymae against your pore brethren, hence 
riseth your dislike, this is the cause you seke not their deliverance, 
libertie and release, you would be glad of a reformation but you 
would not be reformed your selves, but in these things, there 
is but one truth or falshode. If they holde the truth, why then 
resiste you it in these private respectes to please your selves? 
if their opinion be false, shewe the reason and then will we beleeve 
you, but wrest not the worde to satisfie your owne fansie, and 
whether your honoures and Lordships stand or fall, let not the 
holy scriptures lose their due dignitie and reverence. It is 
a lamentable thing to beholde howe (to make their owne matters 
good) men wil in these dayes mangle the scriptures of God, but 
the Lorde will not be so dallied with all, howe so ever they please 
to dally with the simple men of the world, and he wil be revenged 
on you for neglecting to see this foule fault redressed. But to 
my purpose oure brethren lie in prison, where besides their bondes 
they lacke libertie of enjoyinge the company of their frendes, and 
have great neede to be releeved: let them in some sorte finde 
you carefull and mindefull of them, travaile for their deliverie, 
if that wil not be obtained, yet endevoure to procure them some 
further libertie, if neither wil be had, forget not to releve them. 
Their boke is out and cannot be called backe againe, if it may 
be justified by the word of truth, take heede that by you the truthe 
be not betraied, trie it by the touche stone, examine it by the 
word, set al affections aparte, thinke it no disgrace to come downe 
from your Lordly dignities, if the worde of the Lorde will have 
it so. Feede not your owne fantasies, but follow the word, & thinke 
not scorne to be controlled by the same word, out of whose mouth 
so ever it come. Balaam was a Prophet of the Lord, yet at one 
instant his Asse taught him a better lesson than he could teach 
him selfe, I am not to teache you, neither meane I so to take 
uppon me, only I exhort you to deale Bishoply and brotherly, 
and let no vaine love of Lordly dignitie make you carelesse of 
your brethren, who wishe you good in the Lord, though they 
would be glad you were unlorded, not for malice, but because 
scripture alloweth no suche title to a Bishop. If passionate 
affection shall so cary you away, that because your Lordlinesse 


is touched, you will therefore not deale so, but against your 
brethren, I knowe not what others wil conceive therof, but for 
my part (to speake as I thinke) I must nedes doubt, your Lord- 
linesse hath made you utterly to forget what ought to be in 
a Bishop. If they do holde any error or behave themselves 
licenciously and losely, or neglected their vocation, I were easily 
put to silence, but in doctrine they are sounde, in life not to 
be touched, that ever I heard, and were diligent in their calling : 
why then should you so little esteeme them, or why shoulde you 
not use them as brethren, let it not be truly said of you, that the 
blasphemous swearer, and the filthy adulterer may finde more 
favoure among you then our christian brethren, and fellowe worke- 
men in the Lord, I know for the first of these there is no lawe 
to louche him, and for the seconde very slender punishment 
provided, yet for both the Lord hath left unto us very sharp lawes, 
these are unexecuted, and the wicked escape many times for 
mony. Many good lawes (thankes be to God) are provided to 
bridle the wicked, but in them often times the godly are snared, 
and by them you youre selves (if not nowe) yet at other times 
have bene instruments to burthen your brethrens backes, and that 
hath some of them felt in more sharpe sorte (as I have heard) then 
I will hear speake. Well, let that passe, and now deale more 
christianly for the Lordes sake with your brethren, let not lawes 
that were purposely made for the wicked, be made snares by 
you to catch the godly, lay aside this Lording, and shew your 
selves brethren in deede, if they have offended you, admonish them 
brotherly, let not the usurped names and titles of Lorde & Lordes 
grace so puffe you up, as you forget your selves to be pastors & 
preachers : the lord called you or the most of you to this office 
to joine as laborers togither \vith your brethren in his vineyarde, 
he never called you to these lordly names & dignities: the office 
of bishop I finde apointed by scripture: the office of Lord- 
bishop I finde no warrant for there, but in this I meane not to 
wade further, only I beseche you, that as Christ hath allotted you 
to be fellow ministers togither with them, so you wil as companions 
in the Lord joine togither to further one truth & sinceritie, & let 
these pore men tast of your christian charity towards them, as 
brethren, and cease lordly to neglect them, & Lord it no longer, 
think it no discredit to you, or an abasing of your selves, to join 
in equaliti with your brethren, but think it great presumption in 

F 2 


you to clime higher than the lord hath appointed: remember it 
was not in vain said of Christ our saviour, Principes gentium 
dominantur in eas, etc. : inter vos autem non erit sic ; I seeke not 
to teach, neither take I upon me so to do, yet despise not the 
admonition of your faithful brother in the Lord, who wisheth to 
you all such godly consideration of your dueties, as in no respecte 
you omit any parte thereof. 

To conclude, in the name of god I beseche you yeld no such 
frutes of the gospel, as where you shuld be careful, you shew 
yourselves carelesse of your brethren, nether post the matter over 
in such sort as you have done, from one to another, but so longe 
as they keepe them within the limites of the law of god : joyne 
christianly & brotherly with them & assist them, and cease so 
to affect lordship & living as therby you be withdrawne from 
yelding to a knowne & manifest truth. The Lord in his rich 
mercy give every of us grace so to avoid all snares of sathan, as 
wholy without let or hinderance we may be dedicated unto him, and 
yeeld our selves all together obedient unto his wil, so that what he 
hathe commaunded we may strive to maintain, & what he hath 
forbidden, we may indevor to suppresse. Thus praying your 
favorable acceptation hereof I commit you to the lord Jesus. 




Considering the unitie of the body of Christe which are we 
(bicause it is governed with one heade and one spirite, and yet 
notwithstanding a diversitie of parts and membres, for the bodye 
is not one member, for if they were all one member, where were 
the bodye ^?) I have to directe my talke to a whole bodye, yet 
so that either parte hearken to that only which is belonging unto 
him, not snatching that unto him, whiche is not proper to him, 

^ I Cor. xii. 12, 13, 14, 19. 


and unto every member severally, but in suche sort, that they be 
not devided or cutte a parte from the whole. There are in the 
Churche of Christe eyes and eares, there are also handes and 
feete, to either of these I have a request to make, for their 
profite, if they heare it, to their smart, if they rejecte it \ I speake 
unto them in the Lords name, and do herein but his message. 
I require understanding eares therfore, & watchfull eyes, I 
demaund diligent hands and painfull feete. It is not unknowne 
(brethren) howe it hath pleased the Lorde of late to bring forthc 
to the eyes and hands of you all a little scroll, conteining as you 
know, matters concerning the true reforming and building of god's 
church, whether it tend in deede to that ende or noe, I have not 
here to debate, but that it pretendeth, at this I have scene some 
storming, as in the greif of man is easily to be perceaved ; and the 
authors of it, as we know also, are in the place of theeves & 
murtherers: for them I have noughte els to say, but that they are 
there justly, if falsely and untruly they have gone about to spoile 
and robbe us of an unfained truthe, and murther oure soules with 
a corrupt and poisoned water, drawn out of a stinking puddel of 
the filthy dunghill of mannes braines. For how were that to be 
suffered in the civil lawes of earthly princes, that some one of the 
commen sorte, or els other, should go about to disanul the order 
& law set out by the Prince, Gods lieuetenaunt in earth in those 
cases, to place his owne devise ? muche more in the house of God, 
which is his churche. To me it seemeth a thing so untoUerable, 
that all the New gates and olde gates, yea and all tibournes in 
Englande are too little for such rash and presumtious heads, that 
will not give God leave to rule, but will take the scepter out of his 
hande. Being more over and besides that, a shameful! & horrible 
thing to make strife and contention betweene the people of God, 
which are commaunded to be one as their heade, and his father 
are one^ It was the laste and newest commaundement that 
Christe lefte unto us ^ that we should love one another, even as he 
loved us, and this he tolde us, should be a signe wherby we 
should be knowen to be his disciples, if we love one an other as he 
loved us*, which is not fleshlye or carnally, or for any worldly 
respecte, but in the consent and agreement of his commaundement 
in folowing the prescrj'pt of his worde, wherin consisteth the 

^ 15, 26. » Job. xvii. 22. » Job. xv. 11, 13, 35. 

* John xiv. 23; XV. 10, 14. Mat. x. 35. 


cause of all our love, and cause of al hatred, even of our parents, 
when they swarve from it : which surely cannot be maintained, 
where new and straunge orders in Gods matters are invented, 
broched, and published, be who so be may, the causers or founders 
of suche devises. And therfore better it were for them, that a 
milstone were hanged about their neckes, & they drouned in the 
middest of the sea, then one of the least of the kingdome of 
Christe, should be oflfended by their devises ^ 

But as I said, I mind not to entreate of that matter, my desire 
is, & that for Israels sake, I meane the children and churche of 
God, that they which are the eyes of the churche, & are oure 
overseers to watche for our soules ^ (for oure bloud must be required 
at their hands) wolde take this matter in hand, to debate the 
equitie and truth of the cause, by the scriptures and worde of God, 
which is the only foode of oure soules, and stay for the direction of 
all oure godly actions ^ that we the sheepe of Christ might knowe 
false fodder from true, come from chaffe, Schisme from Truthe, 
Christ from Antichriste. 

The accusation is greevous wherewith our cleargy is burdened, 
they are indited as the folowers of Antichrist, their ministerie is 
vouched to be from the Pope, their superioritie which they have by 
order of this realme, as Lords spirituall, and a necessary part of the 
high house of Parlament in establishing politique lawes for the 
profile of the common weale, beside the jurisdiction episcopal, 
which they have over their diocesses, is there condemned as a 
thing in no wise toUerable by the word of God, which thing 
amaseth & daseleth the eyes of us the simpler and unlearned sort, 
that we knowe not howe to esteeme of them, or of our selves, if the 
truthe be so, we ought not to hear them, although they speake 
a truth, more then the devill was to be suffered, althoughe he 
professed Christ*. If it be not so, we marvell why so short & 
pivishe a thing is not by them aunswered, that many simple men, 
which will well to gods cause, and are somwhat shaken with this 
pamflet, might have better stay, that they be not caried away 
with it. 

Therfore my humble sute is to the learnedder parte in the 
name of Christe, and the behalfe of his congregation, that they 
would aunswer it & healpe us which are unlearned. And heere in 

1 Mat. xviii. 6. ' Eze. iii. 17. 

' Job. vi. 27; Heb. v. la ; Psal. cxix. 105. * Luk. iv. 41. 


I shall in Gods name, and as they will aunswere at the last day, 
exhort them to use simple & sincere dealing, and not to wring the 
scripture to serve their owne turne, or other mennes phantasies. 
For if they do, it wil easely be spied: and beside other incon- 
veniences that will insue therof, the people whome they shall 
deceive thereby, shall be their condemnation at that day. Cogge 
not therfore, nor foiste, neither bumbaste it with Rhetoricke, or 
mans authoritie to make a shew, but let the word of the eternall be 
judge betweene bothe, which is goulde and silver, and which is 
drosse and stubble, which is come, and which is chaffe. Call 
I beseeche you, to remembrance this saying of an ancient father : 
quam sapiens argtimentatrix sibi videiur humana tgfiorantia, prce- 
sertim cum aliquid de gaudiis et fruciibus seculi vietuit amittere'^ ? 
Howe wise a disputer (saith Tertullian) doth mannes ignorance 
seeme to it selfe, chiefely when it feareth to lose any pleasure or 
worldly profit. 

But answere I pray you the whole booke, and not by peeces, 
for otherwise your doings will be suspected, neither doe it in 
hudder mudder, or secretely, or in a tonge that the people knowe 
not, for then it will be saide that you dare not publishe it, but doe 
it openly, that all the people may see that you stand upon a good 
ground, upon which if you doe stand, let not your doings feare 
the lighte. Wee crave nothing of them, but what they are bounde 
unto of duetye ^ they are our wachmen : wee take, yea rather they 
themselves take these for wolves, why then do they not chase them 
away ? 

They are fast inough ye will say. It is true, but their tales are 
not : they flee as fire brands from place to place, and set all the 
country on fire. It is requisite also that they be prisoned: but 
that wil not otherwise be, they with the like reason must captivate 
reason, a word will not be bound but with a woorde, the keyes of 
the kingdome of heaven must come forthe heere, or els the keyes 
of Newgate will doe no good. And if they doe not come forthe, 
ignorant men and simple, will saye that the other are to little 
purpose brought forthe. There is a better way for Bishops, and 
Bishops of Christ, to confute a schisme by, than prisons and 
chaines : those were and are Antichristes bishops arguments beino- 
taken a parte : as they are the just weapons of a lawfuli and godly 
Maiestrate, if the other goe before. Some say they remember 
* Tertnllian, lib. de spectaculis. =■ Job x. 12. 


wel that godly saying of that lerned man Augustin, I think it 
bee : Si terrerentur et non docerentur improha quasi dominaiio 
videretur. If they shuld be feared & not taught, it might seme 
a wicked governance^ they se it not practised of the cleargy, they 
are glad to see their Prince to come with terrerentur, they would 
as faine see the Bishops come with docerentur. So you see what 
of duetie they require, and surely let me say with your Honors 
patience what I thinke, is it not a great discredite to your 
Lordships that such a scalde trifeling boke can not be an- 
swered in this season? It is very shorte, you beare us in hande 
it is folishe, joine the follye of it with the brevitie, it might easely 
have beene aunswered ere this : If there had beene taken almoste 
but for every leafe a moneth: there are skarce so many leaves 
in it, as there are monthes past since it came forthe, what re- 
maineth then, but that I renue my sute, that herein (with the 
consideration of Christ and his flocke) you woulde have regarde 
to your owne honoures and creadite, that it be not further spred, 
and said you could not answer it ? 

They doe not satisfie themselves with pollytique reasons, in 
that some say even from your L. that it is a subversion of a 
state, it is a greate troubling of a governaunce. They say the 
question is not, whether it be a troublesome thing to bring that in 
which they woulde, but whether it be a truthe that those men say 
or no ? If that be once resolved, then have they to stay themselves : 
They are readye enough to object the difficulty of Elyas time ^, howe 
hard a thing it was in the eares of the king & people to speake 
to them of the worship of one god, which were nowe doting 
worshippers of their Balims : what an impossible thing it was to 
bring in the true priesthode of Moses amongst a sorte of Idolaters 
which hadde caste Moses oute of the temple. They have the 
example of Christ and his Apostles at the fingers ende, and that 
the priestes then saide, by what authority dost thou this. And 
againe to Pilate, if thou let him go thou arte not Cesar his frende ^ 
In his good and juste purpose they could accuse him of treason, 
of a conspiracie, and for their owne partes aske him by what 
authority, and so is it nowe say they with oure Bishops, they goe 
not to the scriptures as Christe willeth in the person of the scribes, 
but they crie out against these pore men they are not the Queues 
freendes, they make a trouble in a state, these and suche hke are 
* I Re. xviii. 17. ' Mat. xxi. 33; Job. xix. 12; Acts iv. 7. 


their wordes, your honoures have to consider upon the mater 

And thus muche to your honoures wishing youre savetie, if it 
so please God without any shaking, and that your thrones may 
stande for ever, if they be from God, which these men seeme to 
call in doute, and I trust your Lordships wil shew in vaine, & 
how vainely they stande. Nowe to you my brethren, which are 
of the inferioure sort, I have to desire you to cleave to the truthe, 
and be not moved for what so ever. If this be truth which our 
honourable cleargy doe nowe maintaine, cast away that peevishe 
and fonde booke, let not a leafe of paper scrabled and blindly 
by stealthe Printed, more prevaile with you, then an order so long 
maintained by auncient canons and civill lawe, let not one or two 
private men of no accompt or countenance, more persuade with 
you then multitudes of good place, and doers in the behalfe of 
your vertuous Prince and Countrey. Let not the judgement of 
yong menne prevaile againste the graye heades of olde fathers: 
for so may you quickly fall from a truthe, and goe astray when 
you thincke you goe straighte. Set before you the example of 
Rehoboam ^ who if he had folowed the advise of his olde 
counsellers, and not the rashe and greene heades of yong men, 
his kingdome had not so soone rent from him. 

But if on the contrary side, the truth goe on their side ^ if by 
good and diligent conference of the scriptures, you maye see that 
they are in the right way, then what other counsell should I give 
you, but if Baall be God, folowe him : if the Lord be God, follow 
him, better it is to obay God than man. Better it is to goe 
straighte wnth Elias and Christ, then to goe a whoring with all 
the Baalites, Scribes, and Pharisees : a multitude may as easily 
erre as one, it was so then, it is so nowe, foure hundreth and 
fiftie Prophets of Baal for one Elias ^ foure hundred false Prophets 
againste one Michcas : the most part of the world nowe Ma- 
hometistes and Papistes: and surely it was truely said of him, 
who so ever he were Nihil omnino aginius qui nos per viuliitudinis 
exempla defendimus. We doe nothing at al, which defend our 
selves by example of the multitude : Not alwayes the best learned 
were the wisest in Gods matters : example of Nicodemus *, who 
understode not what it was to be born again : Not alwayes the 

^ I Reg. xii. 8. ' i Reg. i. 21 ; Acts iv. 19 ; v. 30. 

* I Re. xviii. aa ; I Reg. xxii. 6. * John iii. 4 ; Job. ix. 30 ; Mar. vii. 2, 3. 


wisest favor wisedome moste, but rather resist it, and strive more 
for the washing of hands and pottes then they do for the king- 
dome of God. 

Masters of religion are not alwayes the most zealous in setting 
forth a truthe, sometimes they can say to the pore lame man^ 
Sahbathum est, it is the sabboth day, non licet tibi tollere grabbatum : 
it is not lawful for thee to take up thy bedde : and if the blinde 
will stand and dispute with them, and say that Christe is not homo 
peccator a sinfull man, althoughe to their thinking, Sabbathum non 
servat"^, he keepeth not the Sabbothe, he shall be excommunicate. 
The unlearned sometime are so allowed of God for their good and 
godly endevors, that he maketh them scholemaisters of the learned 
and great doctor, Looke uppon pore Philip howe he instructed 
Nathanaell ^ Invenimus ilium, we have founde him of whome Moses 
wrote, and the Prophets even Jesus the sonne of Josephe, that man 
of Nazareth. And lette not the vilenesse of Nazareth anie thing 
amase us, such false prejudicies may shutte up the kingdome of 
heaven againste us, we can not say that no good can come oute of 
pore mennes studies, if we do so, we shoulde speake folishly as 
they did in those dayes, can there any goodnesse come from 
Nazareth. God is not in deede bounde to Nazareth : no more is 
he debarred from doing good by Nazareth * : he is not bounde to 
any poore simple man : no more is he cut of from shewing the 
vision of Angels unto shepherds, & himself to women, but slender 
messengers to the sighte of the worlde, to enforme the worlde and 
wittie of the birth and resurrection of Christ. It saithe oftentimes 
also, that the wise and mightie men of the worlde wil say to Christ, 
(of & against the crying out of his pore disciples,) chide them ■'"' : 
But if they do, you know what Christ said at that time, & he saith 
so now to : I tell you, if these hold their peaces, the stones shall 
straight way cry out : his disciples may holde their peace, I say the 
Bishops maye hold their peace, and I say because Christ saide, 
stones, these stones may speake : 

There may be a foule glose made upon a good matter, an evill 
favoured cloke put uppon a faire body : The truthe may be 
accused of sedition, of trouble ®, of breaking of states, if it be so, 
it is no newe thing, if ye bee once assured of an undouted truthe, 

^ Joh. V. lo. * Joh. ix. 34. ' Job. i. 46. 

* Mark i. ; Luke ii. 8 ; Math. xxii. ; Mat. xxviii.; Joh. xx. 18. 

* Lu. XIX. 39. ' Acts xxiv. 5. 


if it be not foule within, & faire without, if it be gold & silver, and 
not stubble grounded upon the true foundation Jesus Christ care 
you not, for that Christ called his truth a sword ^, a fire, and he 
himselfe long agoe was spited at for that, & accused to. Non est 
seruus supra magistrum, there is no servaunt above his master, if 
they called the master of the house Belzebub, how much more them 
of his houshold : the more that men are cried out upon for calling 
for the practise of Gods word, if it shuld destroy al policies in the 
world, (although they that say so, say nothing, for the contrary is 
true, the practising of God's word, & walking in his religion 
uprightly, is the establishing and strengthening of kingdoms) the 
more I say they are cried out upon, the more they ought to goe 
forwards, as wel as the blinde man did, when whole multitudes bad 
him hold his peace : they may not cease I say, althoughe whole 
multitudes cry out against them, & say hold your peace, holde your 
peace, if they will be restored to their sight, & be delivered from 
blindenesse to cry, & to cry out a loud : Thou sonne of David 
have mercy on me '^ : These pore men may cry out, yea ought to 
cry out, if they see us in blindnesse, O sonne of David have mercy 
on them, and so they deserve our favoure & frendship, rather then 
prisons and Newgate : if we be blinde, I say if we be, for that wil 
be discussed I trust by the learned. And if they hold their peace, 
we have to thinke we are in blindnesse, & that they cry wel, sonne 
of David have mercye uppon us. 

In dede if their boke be true (and that I may speake as one of 
you, simple & unlearned, I shall thinke it to be true, until I see it 
confuted by the scriptures) then wil I also as wel as you, as well as 
they, cry out in despite of all the multitude, because I have a greater 
desire to be restored to sight, then feare to displease them, O sonne 
of David have mercy uppon us : And if all Jerusalem shuld be 
displeased because I say, blessed is he that commeth in the name 
of the lord, yet wold I alone cry out, blessed is he that commeth 
in the name of the Lord, were it as new and as strange as it was 
then, seeme it never so great a monster to cal the Samaritanes 
from worshipping in the mountaine Garazim ^ or the Jewes from 
the setled place Hierusalem, from an olde and auncient custome, 
which hath possession many hundreth yeres, yet had I rather be with 
Christe, than with the woman of Samarie, until she come to Christ. 

^ Luk. XX. 20 ; John xi. ao ; Mat. x. 25. 
' Luk. XV. 39. ' Joha iv. 20. 


Antiquitie may deceive us, nay we see it hathe deceived us, 
I can not tell whether it wold stil deceive : it is not true to say, it 
is old, therfore it is good: Sathan hath bene Lord of this world 
a great while ^ : Antichrist of Rome pleadeth the continuance of 
many yeres (I know not) how many C. yeres, neither doth it follow 
it is new, therfore it was nought : it was said to Christ *, what new 
doctrine is this : yet it was no false doctrine : so said the false 
priestes & Bishops of Paules doctrine and the rest, but it was 
not therefore naught ^ : wil you trie the old and the newe, and see in 
deede which is the new, which is the olde, search the scriptures. 
If it be found there, it is olde, say Bishops what they will, let the 
Priestes call it as new as they list : if it be not found there, it is 
newe, let them say what they can, & bring never so many fathers, 
and never so good fathers : better then she brought, I am sure 
they can not, and yet did Christ prevaile, and so will he still : for 
he is the same in his worde, that he was then in bodely presence, 
the writing of the Apostles doe paint him out truely, and nothing 
but him. 

If it be true that they say, that this aucthoritie of Bishops, & 
churche hierarchic which they maintain, come from the Pope, and 
hath no ground but in his law, and that God can not suffer to be 
served according to mens pleasures in ruling of his house, as though 
he wer such a fole that he could not set order himself or wer 
carelesse (which is no point of wit) that he did not : or that he see 
so little, as to devise an order which could not be for al times & 
places, so that we should have nede of a new holy ghost, (for al 
this foloweth upon that ground that they stand upon) away with 
that vile doctrine, or what so ever ye list to terme it, what incon- 
venience so ever wer like to ensue, what antiquitie so ever be against 
it, for you see there is a blasphemie joined with it, which maketh our 
God a folish, a carelesse, an uncircumspect, and unprovident god. 

Wei, peradventure they see something more then they say, 
& some things I am sure they would have to be reformed, which 
they can not bring to passe as they would, & therfore thinke it 
better with poUicie to save the gospell, then to have it cleane shut 
out : It is a common saying of two evils it is best to chuse the 
least * : better it is to have a gospel of Christ joined with a peece 
of Antichriste, then to have none at all : thus they persuade them 

* Joh. xiv. 30. ' Mar. i. 27. 

' Acts xxiv. 14. * Jh. X. I. 


selves, the other doe not so, they thincke it not lawful to joine God 
& Belial together : surely they have some reason, nay they have 
greate reason, for what societie hathe light with darknesse ^. If all 
the world might be gained with a little breache of Gods word, it 
were not to be done, better it were that the whole world should 
pearishe, then one iote of Gods truth should be over slipped : 
Pilate thought he had behaved himselfe wisely "^ when he whipped 
Christe, and put upon him a robe of scarlet, thinking by that 
meanes, making him to appeare vile to the Jewes, to have had him 
let goe, that they might have contented themselves with that little 
punishment, & so might Christ have preached still. But it is 
wickedly done to policie the matters of Christ after that sort. Who 
so ever thinketh by putting a foles cote upon Christ and clothing 
him with a garment which is not his owne, to entertain him still, 
& thinketh he is content by such means to have licence to go 
preaching amongst the people, he deceiveth himself, & shal right 
wel understand at the day of accomptes, that God will not be 
mocked. Thus in some respect you have well to weigh the 
things that are put forth unto you, by the scriptures, without 
further circumstances, leaste in leaving the rule, ye go out of rule. 
But I doute not but our lords and clergy wil quickly shew you 
whether it be wel ruled or no, they have said already in their 
sermons to you, that it is a very folish boke, I trust they wil give 
it unto you in writing, that you may the better way both. But 
before al things take hede to the word let not the shew of man 
deceive you : Peradventure some of you wil be persuaded, bicause 
a bishop an olde man ^, a very learned man saith so, bicause this 
state hath continued * a great while many yeares amongst good 
fathers : do not so, that is no warrant of the word, you have had 
examples inough to shew unto you, how easie it is to be deceived 
therin, on the other side let not the simplicitie of men beare you 
away, for the way also you may erre : the only straight way (as I 
have tolde you) to kepe you from going astray, is the word of god, 
wherewith they as wel as you, I trust, will be content to be tried, 
otherwise they have no ground against the papistes: if they wil 
not, but refuse to be judged by the word, leve them there, those 
pore prisoners have the right, whether they be whipped & scurged, 
or utterly hanged, & assure your selves as wel of them as of your 

^ 2 Cor. ri. 14. " Jh. xix. i. 

' John V. 39. * Acts i. 31. 


selves, if they suffer with Christ, they shal be glorified with Christ 
& so shall you ^ That we may so do, god give us the knowledge 
of the truth, & when we know it to stand stedfast in the truth, that 
the love of the world, & feare of man may not more prevaile with 
us then the love of heaven and feare of god. These things that I 
have saide unto you rudely, I pray you take in good part (good 
brethren) both you that are of the lerned sort, & you that are 
of the simpler, I pray you lay forth the truthe, as your duetie 
bindeth you, & you give eare to the truthe. Confute scismes by 
the scriptures, & judge you them by scriptures also, as prisons 
be used, so let the worde which is the armor of your warfare be 
practised: Let not newegate be the only meanes to stay false 
procedings: If you do so, where error is redressed by the 
magistrate, you shalbe judged because you did not your duety, 
& bring them into the way if they be out, or bi such good con- 
ference they bring you home. The which the father of al mercies 
graunt through his sonne Christ by our comforter the holy ghost. 

* Rom. viii. 17. 


Jeremie, xxvi. ii, 12, 13, 14, 15. 

Then spake the Priestes, and the Prophets, unto the Princes, & 
to all the people, saying : this man is worthye to die : for he hathe 
prophesied against this Citie, as yee have heard with your eares. 
Then spake Jeremiah unto all the princes, and to the people, 
saying : The Lorde hathe sent me to prophesie against this house, 
and againste this Citie, all the things that yee have heard. Therfore 
nowe amend your wayes and workes, and heare the voice of the 
Lorde your God, that the Lorde maye repent him of the plague 
that he hathe pronounced againste you. As for me, beholde, I am 
in your handes: doe with me as you thinke good and righte. 
But knowe yee for certaine, that if you putte mee to deathe, yee 
shall surely bring innocent bloud upon your selves, and upon this 
Citie, and upon the inhabitants therof : for of a truthe the Lorde 
hath sent me unto you, to speake all these words in your eares. 


Grace and peace from God, etc. 

The treatise ensuing (Christian Reader) being in dede purposely 

meant, as the tytle pretendeth, to be a seconde Admonition to the 

Parliament, as yet not being not dissolved, cannot chuse I am sure, 

but be read of divers, that are not of that honourable assembly at 

this time, so that though the treatise is principally directed to them, 

yet the knowledge of the matters, as it must needes passe further. These 

so are they necessary to be further known, and they are the liker ^^t^ters 

■' ■' ■' necessary 

to take good effect, by meanes of the general consent of those that to further 

like them, and especially by meanes of the faithful prayers, which h°°^°' ^. 

many good men shall poure forthe to God for his gracious good Parliament 

blessing therin : wherfore some thing was to be said in a Preface, °°^y* 

as me thought, which might be directed to thee (christian reader) 

whosoever thou art, that lightest upon this boke to read it. And 

would to God many moe might read this boke then are like, 

because muche worse will be said against it, by them which shall 

speake of it by heare say, then could, or would be said, if all read Heare say 

it that will speake of it : whereof we have had too much experience muche 

in the former Admonition. But we have cast our accompts which liurt. 

do bend ourselves to deale in these matters, not onely to abide 

hard wordes, but hard and sharpe dealings also for our laboure, 

and yet shall we thinke oure laboure well bestowed, if by God his 

grace, we attaine but to thus much, to give some light of that What we 

reformation of rehgion which is grounded upon Gods boke, and "^^^l^ ^^ 

somewhat to have opened the deformities of oure English reforma- attaine to 

tion, which highly displeaseth our eternall God. Neverthelesse, ^^ ^\^ 

if it might be, we wold be sory to offend any, but especially any bokes. 

good Christian man, for our purpose is not, if we may chuse, to 

purchase more hatred, or get us more ennemies, for undeserved we 

have of that, and them far too much already, and to offend the 

godly man, is farre from our meaning, for God knoweth we ^^ ^^^^ 

altogether seeke to do such good. But what is ther in our bokes enemies, & 


too muche that should offend any that be, or would seeme to be godly ? And 

akeady X^^ Some man may say either there is muche amisse in our bokes, 

undeserved, or else we have a great deale of wrong offered us, and that by 

suche men as woulde seeme to be the fathers of all true godlinesse, 

for the authors of the former have bene & are hardly handeled, to 

Next be sent close prisoners to Newgate, next dore to hanging, and 

doore to ^^ some of no meane estimation it hath bene said (as is reported) 

Bedlem. that it had bene well for them, if they had beene sente to Bedlem 

to save their lives, as though they had bene in pearill of being 

hanged, and another likely prelate saide, if they were at his 

Newgate ordering, Newgate should have beene their suretie, and fetters their 

their bondes. And yet now that they have had the law, and I thinke 

fetters their with the most too, that they were close prisoners, they are found 

bonds. nether to have ben traitors nor rebels, and if it had bene tried by 

-pjie Gods law, they should not have beene found to have offended 

authors of against that lawe at all, but to have deserved praise of that lawe, 

admoni- ^•^d of the church of God, as rightly that learned man maister Beza 

tion, no gaith they deserve, which oppose themselves against such endevours, 

rebels DV 

our lawe & ^s they doe in that little booke, farre worse then those, which he 

by Gods calleth a manifest falling away from Christ. And I pray thee, 
offenders, gentle Reader marke these words wel of that great learned & godly 
Ep. fol. M. Beza, and it shall answer for them to two men principally, that 
vlt. pa. I. i^ave ernestly declamed against that admonition, and the authors 
Two de- therof. The one said it was a folyshe boke : the other said the 
aeainsTthe ^■Uthors were to rashe in setting it forth without a councell, and 
former ad- I wot not what allowance before it wer defined. But this learned 
mom ion. ^^^ answereth them bothe with one word, that it is a commendable 
work, and deserveth no dispraise. And whatsoever the declaimer 
saithe, they shalbe circumspect enough, that shall avouche un- 
doubted truthes out of the scriptures though they wait not for the 
consent of a fewe, no nor yet of many, for maister Beza dare say, 
Licences it is a manifest falling away from Christe to maintaine pluralities 

for piuraii- ^^ bgi^gflces, licences for non residence, etc. though he heare not 

ties, non- ' ' ° 

residence that any councel hath agreed upon it in England, for he knoweth 

and sue ^ it is a resolved truth in all right reformed churches, and especially 

cesused in the scriptures. And what I pray you have they done amisse, 

amongs us, ^^^ ^j^^ declamer also offended in it, if it be an offence ? They 

is a mam- ' ■' 

fest falling have published in Print that the ministerie of England is out of 

Ch^'^t square, & he hath published at Paules crosse, that the bishops of 

England have bene uncircumspect in making of ministers, and that 


hathe he published before any councel in England had determined 

it. Woulde to God he had never done worse faulte, nay, woulde Peradven- 

he had not more offended there, which he craved pardone for, ^^^^^^^ 

when he had done it, and yet so, as he said he cared not thoughe himselfe. 

they pardoned him not, for he thinketh of like, that he neede not 

care for offending the poore members of Jesus Christ, and for as 

muche as he spake againste them two in Newgate, he shall never go to 

Newgate for saying the bishops were uncircumspect. I coulde wishe 

such to be more circumspect what they saye to offend simple, and pore 

members of Christe. Let such men remember the penaltie threatened, 

better a milstone tied about their necks, and they drowned in 

the depth of the sea^ Nowe I neede not aske what they have 

aunswered to that boke, for they have answeared nothing, but that it 

is a folyish booke, etc., but with godly wisemen I trust, that will Lavishe 

not be taken for a sufficient answere, as in deede it is not. They ^ * 

saye there is an answere towards, for my part I long to see it, and An answer 

yet to say truthe, I should be lothe, considering they cannot but *°^*'''^^5- 

betray their weaknesse to the papistes, or else confirme them in 

their follies, but principally offend the churche of God. And in 

parte, you shall perceive their dealing, in a collection that they 

have made of those things which they misselike in the former What their 

Admonition, by a short treatise containing a confutation of their ^^jiib/js{.Q 

collection or view as they call it. The treatise came to oure handes, be seene by 

the author unknowne, and we have thought good to imparte it to thev have 

thee (Christian reader) that thou mightest see and consider. But already 

what stand I so much in defence of the former admonition. Some ^^^^ '° 

peradventure wil thinke I had nede to speake for this second more. 

But till I heare more, I will say little. Yet thus muche I say, if 

some suppose it to be too particular, & to touch the quicke to 

neare, let them thinke withall how necessary it is to be knowne, and 

further, that these deformities be the cause that we require reforma- Pointes to 

tion, and what an intollerable thing it is to suffer all these ^^ thought 

° of. 

enormities amongst us. And if some doute whether all the par- 

ticulares be true that are heere named, let them seeke examination, Seke ex- 

and they shall finde farre worse matter, then is here alleaged. animation. 

They shal finde such stomacke of one side against the other, that 

they cannot abide any thing, never so wel done of the other side, 

and that of a stomacke. I will not open an olde ulcer, or examine stomacke. 

whye the Geneva translation and notes of the Bible finde so little Geneva 

1 Mat. xviii. ^i^le- 

G 2 


favoure, althoughe to this day no translation is so good in England. 

I will not rip up among our prelates the simonie, the treacherie so 

particularly as is come to my knowledge. But those particulars 

which I have touched, the very occasion forced me to it, and suche 

just occasion I may have, that I maye be more particulare here- 

Unproper after. Now, whereas some very unproperly (as I thinke) do say 

Smm's^ ° ^^^^ ^^® ^" ^^^^ *^° uncover our fathers privities, and would wishe us 

example, to forbeare so to do. We are of their minde that Cham did 

22. noughte, but they shall not finde us like that ribaulde Cham, which 

Cham a toke delite in that nakednesse, they shall finde the time servers, 

" ^^ ^' and such as dallye with the shame of nakednesse in this time, they 

Time ser- shall finde them to take Chams trade, but for us, we woulde, and 

Cham's ^°^ what we can, to cover this shame with a right cover, that is 

trade. with a right reformation, and that do we going backward, as men 

en. IX. 3. jQ(-]^g g^jj^ sorye to heare of the nakednesse, and desirous to cover 

it, that our fathers (if they wil be our fathers) may no longer shew 

These their shame. Againe wheras some men (& that good men to) 

treatises to ^jj g^y these treatises be too hotte for this time, I wish to know 

hot for this -^ ' 

time, wherin ? whether in the matters which we handle ? or in the 

aunswear- handling of the matters? The matters are Gods, wherin we 
God's ^^y ^°^ minse him. And the deformities have continued long, 
matters not and are manifestly intoUerable, where against we are commaunded 
minsed ^° ^^y °"''^" ^^^^ °^'' ^^^ cease not, lift up thy voice like a 
trumpet, & tell my people their wickednesse, and the house of 
Jacob their sinnes, saith the Lord to his Prophet, which saying and 
the verse folowing, doth so belong to us, that we shall hardly 
answer it to God, if we doe the contrary, & scarse wel answere it, 
that we have forborne so long. And who they be ^, and what the 
scripture thinketh of them, that require that their Preachers should 
speake pleasing things, it is more evident then that I neede to 
amplifie that point. Againe, that they which studie and endevor 
to please men, are not the servaunts of God, Paules wordes are 
plaine. Now for the handling of the matters, whereas some will 
say such a sentence is too hote, and suche and suche a worde is too 
sharpe, if they measure oure zeale with the zeale of milde Moises, 
of Elias, of the prophets, of John Baptist, of Paul, of the Apostles, 

* Esay. Iviii. 1-2. 

' Esay. XXX. 9, 10, 11-12, etc.; Gal. i. 10; Exod. xxxii. 19, 20 ; i reg. xviii. 
18, 27 ; Math. iii. 7, 8, 9 ; 2 Cor. v. 13 ; 3 Jh. ix. 10 ; Mat. xv. & xxiii. 


of John the elder against Diotrephes, of Christ our saviour against 

the Pharisees, I trust they shall finde us to kepe our selves within 

the bounds of the examples of the scriptures. And if they marke 

oure writings well, they shal finde us to have uttered nothing but 

true, and necessary matter, and to have framed oure words unto Wordes 

our matter, & not to have sought words to serve our affections. ^\^^^^ *° 

° the matter, 

But they which speake slanderously of them that offend not, of and not to 

those that serve God in their doing, which call them rebels and ^f^^ ^^^*^" 

° tion. 

seditious, which are faithfull subjects to God & their Prince, which 

either wrest mennes words, or falsefie them, what deserve they ? 

God forgive them that, and far worse matters, for his Christes sake, 

and give them better mindes towardes his true churche & a right 

reformation. And yet for as much as we heare they will answere 

us, this I say, if they wil keepe them to the truth it selfe, the worde 

of God ^, then will the maters shortly come to a good issue, but if 

they draw us to other trials, there will prove craft in dawbing (as 

they say) for that hath beene the craft of the papistes, to rigge up A good 

all corners, and to finde all the shiftes they can, to have scope ^^^^f where 

■' ' ^ matters of 

enough to varie a lye : to say much nothing to the profe, and yet religion 

to amase the people with shewe of authorities. But if they will ^l^ tned by 

answer us still with crueltie & persecution, we will kepe our selves of God 

out of their handes, as long as God shall give us leave, and content A^^^^'ft 

ourselves with pacience, if God suffer us to fall into their handes, of the 

and surely we shall hardly escape them, if they and their doers P^P^^^^y^ 

which be certaine persecuting printers, maye have their willes. people 

And heere humbly we beseche her majestic, not to be stirred T'^^^f 

against us, by such men as will endevoure to bring us more into authoritie. 

hatred, which will not care what to lay to our charge, so they may An humble 

oppresse us, and suppresse the truth : They will saye we despise request 

authoritie, and speake againste her soveraignetie. But O Lord majestie. 

what will not envie say against truth ? ill will (they say) never said m will 

well. No, no, we heartely, plainly and faithfully professe, that the ^^''^^ ^aide 

chefe governors in civill matters, have chefe authoritie over all 

persons, in their dominions & countreys ^ and are the foster fathers, 

and nursses of christes church. And as Jehosaphat having cheefe 

authoritie, did by his authoritie set up, and defend not only the 

civill government, but also the true reformation of the church at 

that time, in his dominion and Cyrus in his^, so we referre the same 

^ Joh. xvii. 17. ' Rom. xiii, I j Es. xlix. 23; 2 Chr. xix. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 
' I Esd. i. 2, 3, 4. 


authoritie to our soveraigne, beseeching her Majestie, and the whole 

Most state, to proceede in it. And this is most true, that her Majestie 

assured gj^g^U j^q|. fl^^jg j^etter subjectes in her land, then those that desire 
subjectes. •* 

a righte reformation, whose goodes, bodyes, and Hves, are moste 

assured to her Majestie, and to their Countrey, and which cease 

not to poure forthe their heartie prayers unto God for her majesties 

long & happy raigne in muche prosperitie, to be an auncient 

matrone in Israeli, in the church of God in England, and her 

dominions, to defend and maintaine the same in much peace and 

godlinesse, al the dayes of her majesties natural life, and to be 

crowned after in heaven with eternall glory, which I beseche God 

by the working of his spirit, fully to accomplishe and performe for 

his Christes sake : which thing also (Christian reader) I beseeche 

thee to commend unto God continually in thy earnest prayer. 

And thus for this time, desiring thee to peruse this treatise with 

A single a single eye, as also I desire all those that are of the honourable 

^^^' assemblye of the Parliament to doe, for the time that the parliament 

continueth proroged, that they may be wel acquainted with the 

matters when they come together againe : 

I doe commend you and them, and continually will commend 

you bothe, in my earnest prayers unto our good, and gracious Lord 

god, to whom in Trinitie of persons, and unitie of godhead, be 

ascribed, and geven al authoritie, dominion, and power for ever. 

So be it. 


It is no new matter to see the faithfull and profitable admonitions 
of God his preachers currishly rejected of them, which should 
gladly and thankfully heare and embrace them, which should 
obay them, which should to their uttermoste promote them, which 
should employ themselves to defend them : and yet it is as olde 
a custome as it is lamentable, to finde such as shuld be most 
frends, most foes. To leave the eldest times, when^ Abel 
found no worsse freende then Caine, his owne brother, when 
Ismael- persecuted Isaac, when Esau^ Jacob, when Joseph* 
was persecuted by his owne brethren, when Moses' was faine to 
flee from Egipte bicause of the Jewes, and so forthe till the time 
of the Prophetes, when ® Jeremie found least favor at the priests 
hands, when Ozeah saythe that Gilead the^ colledge of priestes 
was a citie of wicked doers, and polluted with bloud, when Amos 
was so ill entreated by^ Amazia the priest of Bethel, yea leaving 
these, and comming nearer, when our savioure Christe crieth' 
woe to the Scribes and Phariseis, exact interpreters of Godhis 
law, bicause of their hypocrisie, who though they would faine 
seeme holy, yet had they not the heartes to yeelde to the truth 
preached by oure savioure, bicause their credite and gaine (as 
they thought) lay another way: they therfore yeelded not, but 
in steede therof they slaundered Christes person, and his doctrine, 
they bent themselves wholely against him, they persecuted him, 
yea the texte is plaine, that Phariseis and priestes all of them^", 
counselled againste him, lefte him not till they broughte him to 
his death, nay which is more, one of his owne companie, one 
of the principall, one of the " twelve, Judas betrayed him. Lette 
us caste oure eyes uppon the Apostles, they founde not onely the 

» Gen. iv. 8. « Gal. iv. 29. ' Ge. xxvii. 41. * Ge. xxxvii. 23. 

* Exod. xii. 13, 14. » Jere. xxvi. 8. '' Ose. vi. 8. ' Am. vii. 10. 
» Math, xxiii. 13, 14, etc. " Job. xi. 47. " Mat. xxvi. 48. 


Phariseis & priestes their masters cheefe persecutors, to be theirs 
also, but divers^ false brethren, I say brethren, but false brethren, 
nevertheles they went and were taken for brethren, these I saye 
they were endaungered by : so then, to overpasse the examples of 
the church since, as they are reported in the Ecclesiasticall histories 
(bicause we have and may have ever best lighte by the scriptures) 
this is it I wold say, that in these our dayes, the preachers finde 
not lesse favoure, nay they are not more slaundered and persecuted, 
by any, then not onely by the learned of the popishe profession, 
but also by suche as woulde seeme pillers of the true religion. 
And surely a straunge thing it is, and a marvellous case, and muche 
to the dismay of many that it should be so, saving that in perusing 
the scriptures, it is found to have beene commonly used. There 
were two little Treatises lately sette forthe, both tending to one ende, 
namely to admonishe the parliament, what it had to doe touching 
religion, and tending to one ende, they beare one name, that is, an 
Admonition to the parliament. The matters therin contained, howe 
true so ever they be, have founde small favoure. The persones that 
are thoughte to have made them, are laide in no worsse prison then 
Newgate. The men that sette upon them, are no worsse men then 
Bishops. The name that goeth of them, is no better then rebelles, 
and great woordes there are, that their daunger will yet prove 
greater : well, whatsoever is said, or done against them, or whoso- 
ever speake or worke against them, that is not the matter : but the 
equitie of their cause is the matter. And yet this I will say, that 
the state sheweth not it selfe upright, if it suffer them so to be 
molested, for that which was spoken only in the way of admonition 
to the parliament, which, was to consider of anye suche admonition, 
and to receive it or rejecte it, without further matter to the Authors: 
except it contained some wilfull maintenaunce of manyfest rebellion, 
or treason, which it cannot be proved to doe. Againe appealing 
as they doe to that highest Court of Parliament, from the lower 
of the Bishops, and Commissioners, bicause they finde not equitie 
at their handes, nor cannot, the Bishops, who are in their Admoni- 
tion most touched, being cheefest in Commission, alledge the 
Parliament what it will (as some say it was not in fourme of lawe, 
and Imprinted, and yet I trowe there may be founde presidentes of 
the like, as that of Roderike Mors, the way to Common wealthe, 
the Complaint of the baggers, and such Hke.) All honest men 
* 2 Corinth, xi. 26. 


shall finde lacke of equitie, if their safetie be not provided for in 
this respecte, yea, and their appeale thought uppon, heard, and 
yeelded unto. If it were the case of any number, for worldly 
respectes, this high Courte were to provide for it, but being the 
case of the whole church of Englande, and Irelande, and in deede 
God his cause, all good consciences shall condemne that Courte, 
that provideth not for it, but rejecteth it. The scripture is plaine, 
it ^ shall be easier for Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judge- 
ment, then for such a Court. God give it grace to provide for it, 
so ever it be dissolved, and pardon the negligence already com- 
mitted, for otherwise surely, there is none other thing to be loked 
for, then some speedie vengeance to light upon the whole land, 
provide as well as the politique Machevils of Englande thinke they 
can, though God do his worste : but shut God out of your 
assemblies and courtes, as hetherto in this youre laste Parliament 
you have don nothing therin as you ought, no though you have 
bene solicited, but have suflFred them that were your soHcitoures, 
to be molested, you shall find, bothe that you oughte to have 
soughte the^ kingdome of God first, and also you shal finde, if 
you consider not youre owne wayes in youre heartes, howe you 
thinke it a time to builde seeled houses, to devise lawes for the 
preservation and prosperitie of your common wealth, and neglecte 
God his churche, leave that waste, provide not for that, you shall 
finde (as the ^ Prophet saith) yee shall sowe muche, and bring in 
little, yee shall eate, and not have inoughe. As for the Convoca- 
tion house, whereof many have conceived a marvellous opinion, 
and which should of duetie loke to these matters, common ex- 
perience dothe prove, that they doe for the most parte apply 
them selves to the time, and seeke rather to please and followe 
worldly pollicie, then sincerely to promote Gods cause, and to 
publishe his truth. And hereof their last convocations can be 
good witnesses. But you say the Bishops are good men, & great 
clearkes, they knowe what they have to doe, and possible some 
of them doe, excepte the God of this worlde have blinded their 
eyes, and so did some of the popishe bishops : but you were 
deceived by them, and you are like to be deceived by these, it 
you truste them so farre, as experience teacheth. Neverthelesse 
you shall die * in your sinnes, you shal both ^ fall into the ditche. 

* Math. X. 14, 15. 2 Mat. vi. 33. ^ ^g_ ^ g^ g^ 

* Eze. xxxiii. 8. ' Mat. xv. 14. 


But some will say that the admonition hindered other things. As 
who shuld say that to further God's cause, is to hinder other 
matters that be profitable for the common wealth, both the 
knowledge of God, and the promoting of his glory, hinder profit- 
able lawes ? that is a thing that I would gladly learne, for I coulde 
never understand it before. Wherfore this may be as a seconde 
Admonition, with the like minde as afore by them, to crave 
redresse of the great abuses in oure Reformation of Religion, 
some being continued from the papistes, some devised by the 
fantasticall heades of vaine menne, and some though not main- 
tained, yet suffered and not reformed unto this day, yea and 
further, as they afore, doe againe appeale to this highe Courte 
of Parliament from all other Courtes, being ready to defende that 
whiche I write touching the substance of it againste all men, and 
that uppon the pearill of my life. Let me be but uprightly heard 
and interpreated. The matter is Goddes, overpasse it not lightly, 
for we maye not (thoughe you devised lawes to cutte us off, as by 
some one bishop you have bene ere nowe provoked) for oure 
partes thus leave it. The other bokes are shorte (as it was 
requisite to present to you) and therefore they have not so muche 
tolde you how to Reforme, as what to Reforme. They have tolde 
you of many things amisse, and that very truely, they have tolde you 
in generall, what were to be restored, but howe to doe these things, 
as it is the hardest pointe, so it requireth, as themselves saye, 
a larger discourse. I meane therfore to supplie (as shortly as 
I can, bicause I write as they did to you) some thing that may 
make to the expressing of the matter, so plainely, that you may 
have sufficient light to proceede by, till they which are endued 
with greater giftes, discusse it more exactly, or till we our selves, 
who have begon, maye have further oportunitie to proceede, if it 
be neglected of their part which coulde doe it better. And yet 
this I dare say, for the substance of those Treatises (which is it 
that galleth the adversaries mooste, howe so ever they quarrell 
with them upon wordes) that it is so grounded upon the undoubted 
truthe of God his booke, that the divell of hell, cannot with his 
coloures blemishe it, save he may seeke to suppresse it by violence : 
nor any but he, and those whome he hathe deceived, or whome 
God hath not yet given so much light unto, will or can stand 
against it. I would, and doe therefore earnestly admonishe them 
that knowe, to knowe as they ought, and to doe as they knowe, 


and to beware of the ^ God of this worlde, that he deceive them 
not, for the time will come, that this ^ dung shall be throwne openly 
in their faces, to their everlasting shame, that maintain it, like as 
at this day it hathe befallen to the sencelesse Papistes, who will 
never give over, til they can neither wil nor chuse, with shame 
inough. Next I woulde, and doe earnestly admonishe those that 
are ignorant, to learne to knowe, and to beware of a blinde zeale, 
which is more violent & unjust, then oughte else, carying men 
headlong, to maintain that, they have no reason for, and wickedly 
to gainstand the expresse truth, to their endlesse perdition. Now 
to the matter, I say that we are so skarce come to the outwarde 
face of a Churche rightly reformed, that although some truth be 
taught by some preachers, yet no preacher may withoute greate 
danger of the lawes, utter all truthe comprised in the booke of 
God. It is so circumscribed & wrapt within the compasse of 
suche statutes, suche penalties, suche injunctions, suche advertise- 
ments, suche articles, suche canons, suche sober caveats, and suche 
manifolde pamphlets, that in manner it doth but peepe out from 
behinde the screene. The lawes of the lande, the booke of 
common prayer, the Queenes Injunctions, the Commissioners 
advertisements, the bishops late Canons, Lindwoodes Provincials, 
every bishops Articles in his diocesse, my Lord of Canterburies 
sober caveates, in his licences to preachers, and his highe Courte 
of prerogative or grave fatherly faculties, these together, or the 
worste of them (as some of them be too badde) may not be 
broken or offended against, but with more daunger then to offende 
against the Bible. To these subscribing, and subscribing againe, 
and the third subscribing, are required, for these. Preachers and 
others are endited, are fined, are prisonned, are excommunicated, 
are banished, and have worse things threatned them : and the 
Bible, that muste have no further scope, then by these it is 
assigned. Is this to professe God his worde? is this a reforma- 
tion? He that could not abide straunge fire in the olde law, but 
burnt ^ them that used it, what will he doe to us in the newe lawe, 
that erect a new and straunge course, or worde, to rule his church 
by? What did the Pope but so? he did suffer God his worde to 
have a course as farre as it pleased him, so that he might have 
the whole authoritie above it. So did the Popishe churche ; but we 

^ understand this of the devill, as Joh. xii. 31 ; Jh. xiv. 30. 

' Ephe. vi. 12 ; 2 Cor. xliv ; Mai. ii. 2, 3 ; Rom. x. 2. * Levi. x. u. 


say the^ worde is above the church, then surely it is above the 
Englishe churche, and above all these bookes afore rehearsed. If 
it be so, why are not they over ruled by it, and not it by them ? 
Here falleth forthe to be answered a shift of descant to turne and 
winde this matter. Forsothe these are not repugnant, saithe one, 
to the woorde of God, no nor yet say we, are they consonante, 
no more is chaffe like to quenche fire, no nor yet can it abide 
the fire. But gold can. Even so are these unable to quenche 
the lighte of the gospell, no^ nor yet can they abide the course 
of the gospell, but true religion abideth the triall of the word of 
God. As wel reasoned, it were to say lay hay or stubble on 
the fire, for it wil not quench the fire, and therefore it will not 
be consumed by the fire, as to say receive this reformation, for 
it is not repugnant, therefore it will abide the triall of the word, 
but the scripture abideth no suche distinction of contrary, and 
divers, for he that is not with me, take he the Jewes parte, the 
Turkes, the Papistes, or the hipocriticall Englishe protestantes 
parte, ' he is against me saith Christe. Another, he talketh for 
the Queues supremacie. Out saithe he, may not the Queene doe 
this and that, but you muste call her to a reckening : howe allowe 
you then hir supremacie in Ecclesiasticall things, (which are in 
deede to be determined in conferences and councels, and that 
by the warrant of the worde) you will prove very Anabaptistes, 
not suffering Magistrates, nor any politique orders besides, and 
so he runneth away with alleaging scriptures that commaunde 
obedience to magistrates, and say things must be done orderly 
and decently, and he deviseth many foule names, and reproches 
for us. But heere hir Majestic is to be humbly intreated, that 
of hir clemencie, shee will abide us (who are bound by duetie, 
and obedience to God) freely to discusse all things as they are 
set * forthe in the woorde of God, though her Majestic otherwise 
thinke it straunge, and also have inowe to exasperate hir Majestic 
against us pore men, who are farre unable to abide hir displesure, 
and would be sory to oflfende her, if it might please God to encline 
her Majesties heart to consider of our cause, and not to be turned 
from us by the importunateness of oure adversaries, nor by other 
prejudice of oure persones or places: but to deale with us even 
according to the truthe of the matters we deale in, which are 

^ Ephe. ii. 20. ^ i Corrin. iii. ' Mat. xii, 30. 

* Deu. iv. 4 ; Jos. i. 8. 


according to the very woorde of almightie God, or else if it will 
not fall out so, we will be content to abide hir displeasure and 
sharp punishment. But if it fal out so, then as an inferioure 
Magistrate may not take the authoritie of the highest into his 
handes, no more may any Magistrate usurpe Gods. To Cesar 
* geve that which is Cesars, & to God that which is his, saithe 
cure savioure. None is so high in her common wealthe, as hir 
majestic : none to use the sweard but shee, and whom shea 
appointeth under hir, according to the lawes of this land, so that 
it be not repugnant to their vocation, as to ministers. Likewise, 
none is so high in the churche as Christe, none to doe any thing, 
nor any thing to be done in his churche, but as it is appointed 
in his woorde, either by precise or generall direction. And ther- 
fore it is allowed and commaunded to Christian men, to trie all 
^ things, and to holde that whiche is good, whosoever forbidde 
withoute exception, Prince, or other, so that if we examine everye 
thing done in this churche of God in Englande by the worde of 
God, and holde that whiche is good, though the lawe be offended, 
that lawe is to be reformed, and not we to be punished, for 
whatsoever our personnes or places be, if oure matters we deale 
in, be Gods, her majestic we trust, remembreth what the scripture 
saith : he that despiseth you ^ despiseth me, and he that receiveth 
you, receiveth me. As we know this case to be cleare, so we 
trust and daily pray, that God will open her majesties heart, to 
consider of it and us. But to these men againe, let them shewe 
us (if they can) by what aucthoritie they may enjoine us (if God 
his worde beare them to be magistrates) to observe the boke of 
Common prayers, bothe in matter and manner, as in their laste More said 
Canons they forbid their ministers to depart from one or other ? ^\^ \\ie.n 
it is wicked to say no worse of it, so to attribute to a booke, in we say for 
deede culled out of the vile popish service booke, with some ^^ble. 
certaine rubrikes and gloses of their owne devise, suche authoritie 
as only is due to God his booke : and inditements, imprisonments, 
and suche extremities used against them which breake it, is cruell Cruel 
persecution of the members of Jesus Christe. And of all other P^''^^*^^' 
greevous enormities laide uppon this churche of God in England, 
this is the greatest, that it is not lawfuU to utter that which we 
learne truely oute of the scriptures. We must be in daunger of 
a premunire if we folowe not the lawes of the land, thoughe they 
^ Math. xxii. 21. * Th. v. 21. * Lu. x. 16. 


be againste the Scriptures, and in daunger of a twelve monthes 

imprisonment, if we speake against the booke of common prayer, 

though it be againste the word of God. In deede if there were 

Acts XV. a. order taken for conferences, such as the scriptures commendeth 

to the church for the triall of truthe, when it is hard & darke, then 

were the dealing not harde, but uprighte. As for the Convocation 

house I tolde you before what it was, and what may be looked for 

at their handes, and somewhat more shall be saide of it heereafter. 

If that were said for the Bible, which is said for the booke of 

common prayer, and which God saith in his law for his ^ woorde, 

then were the dealing upright and good. Now if they meane by, 

not repugnant that it is consonante in all and everye the contents 

thereof with the woorde of God, that can they never prove. But 

coulde they prove that, yet they snare the church of God betweene 

that boke and other bookes, which they obtrude with straight 

charge to be observed, which bookes doe differ amongs themselves : 

as the booke of common prayer, and the injunctions about wafers, 

the boke of common prayer and the advertisements about the 

churche vestures, the Canons against the pontificall, in not ordering 

of ministers, sine titulo, the preface of the last boke of homilies, 

and of the last newe Bible against the booke of Common prayer in 

the manner of reading of the scriptures. And in many things the 

bishops articles in their severall diocesses differ from this booke, as 

aboute the standing of the communion table, & fetching the dead 

Thus shal to church, and such like, but the courte of Faculties, that for 

they be marrying withoute asking the banes, and many moe things differeth 

that follow from it and all other their bookes, but cheefely from God his Bible : 

h ^"d s what say we to this case ? we are neither free to folowe the Bible, 

nor out of doubt what to doe by these bookes, but to followe God 

and his woorde, we are so free, that we are by the Apostle 

forbidden to become servants "^ of men. If this be true, as who 

can denye it, then is it your partes to rid our churche of these 

shrewde encombrances. And whereas it was meant to bridle 

Directe papists, make direct lawes against them. Further, wheras our 

lawes church yet misseth of the right course of the scriptures in our 

againste ° , 

papistes. reformation, let youre learned men be driven to drawe a platforme 

out of God his boke (wher it is described at ful) according to his 

will in the same revealed, and the examples of the best Churches 

The cause beyonde the seas, as Geneva, Fraunce, etc. And the only cause 

that all 1 -rv ^ • 9 /- •• 

^ Deut. IV. a. * i Cor, vii. 23. 


why our church differeth from the churches reformed of the churches 
straungers, or amongs our selves, or they amongs themselves, is °^^ 
because one church suffereth not it selfe so to be directed by the 
course of the scriptures as an other doth, except it be in those 
things of order, wherin one parishe may many times differ from Churches 
an other without offence, folowing the generall rules of the scripture -^^^atters 
for order, as in appointing time and place for prayers, and so forth, of order. 
So that we are so farre off from singularitie wherwith we are 
commonly charged, that we desire to drawe by one line with the 
primitive churche, and the churches best reformed at this day, for 
we say there is but one ^ line throughout all countreis, and at all 
times as the scripture speaketh, there is one body^, one spirite, 
one hope, one Lorde, one faith, one baptisme, one God and 
Father of all, which is above all, and through al, and in us all. 
The persons and causes that are to deale and to be dealt with in 
the church are certaine, and expressed in the scriptures. The life 
of the worde is the ministerie of the same, howe shall they heare 
without a^ preacher saith the Apostle. The former tretises 
therfore have rightly spoken against the bastard, idol, and 
unpreaching ministerie of this church. And therefore this I say, Sufficient 
that first you must provide a sufficient maintenance for the fj°^he°" 
ministerie, that in every parishe they may have a preaching pastor, ministerie. 
one or moe, that may only entend that charge. Is not the scripture 
plaine : Thou shalt not * mousel the mouth of the Oxe, that 
treadeth out the come? for our sakes no doubt this is written, 
that he that eareth should eare in hope, that they which sowe you 
spirituall things, might reape of you temporall things, which is no 
bad exchaunge for you. Nowe, to your handes oure auncestors 
have raised a maintenance, which is not so embeseled away, nor 
the propertie so altered, but that (though mennes devotion be colde 
to the ministers) the state may easely by law restore the same 
provision againe, without losse in manner to any partie. If none 
other way may be founde, then have the bishops and cathedrall 
churches temporalities inough, to redeme those livings that be 
impropriated, or otherwise out, and to better those livings which 
are too small, and as I thinke to be employed to other good uses 
of the church also. But we will not stande with you so muche in 
the manner of the raising of their provision, for raise it as it shall 

^ Phil. iii. 16. * Eph. iv. 4. ' Ro. x. 14. 

* I Cor. ix. 9, 10, II, I a, etc. ; Deu. xxv. 4; i Ti.v. 18; Ro. xv. 27; Deu.xviii. i. 


please God to put you in minde, so that you provide sufficiently 

for your ministers, that they maye be of abilitie to maintaine their 

charge, and to bestowe upon fitte furniture of bokes and honest 

hospitalitie. But in the meane while, untill a sufficient provision 

be made, it is no better then sacrileage and spoiling of God to 

kepe backe any way the provision which hath bene made in that 

respecte, and the cursse of God threatned by Malachie to those 

that spoiled the^ Levites then of their provision, belongeth, and 

wil hght upon our spoilers nowe, & upon them in whose hands it 

is to redresse it, if they doe it not. Also there must be orders 

Bestowing taken and looked unto, for the bestowing of the livings provided 

of umver- jj^ jj^g universities (now dennes of many theevish non-residentes :) 

not to the greedy use of many cormorant masters of colledges, and 

at their wicked pleasure, as they are, but to the bringing up for 

the moste parte of such as wil be content to be employed upon the 

charge of the ministerie, when as the church shall have nede of 

them, and to take from them that have moe livings, all save one, 

and that to, except they will be resident, and be able and willing 

to discharge it, having besides the allowance which afterwards 

shalbe spoken of by God his grace. And this provision must so 

sufficiently be established, that it may be paide without© adoe, and 

Ministers not to be sought for ^, or wonne by suspensions, or excommunica- 

mainten- jj^j^^ which are applied by the scriptures to a farre more proper 

to be re- and spirituall use, & not at all to this. And also there are many 

covered by charges going out of benefices, wherof they shoulde be unburdened. 

excommu- t,t i 

nication. Next, you must repeale your statute or statutes, whereby you have 

Unbur- authorised that ministerie that now is, making your estate partly 

benefice". ^^ consist of Lordes spiritual (as you cal them) and making one 

Repealing minister higher then another, appointing also an order to ordaine 

of statutes, ministers, which order is cleane diff"ering from the^ scriptures, 

wherefore you muste have the order for these things drawne oute 

of the scriptures, which order is this. When any parishe is 

destitute of a pastor, or of a teacher, the same parish may have 

recourse to the next conference, and to them make it knowne that 

they maye procure cheefely from the one of the universities, or if 

The chus- Otherwise, a man learned, & of good report, whome after triall of 

^°s: pf his giftes had in their conference, they may present unto the 

parishe which before had bene with them aboute that matter, but 

^ Mai. ill. 8, 9. 2 j^at_ X. 17 ; 2 Cor. ii. 6, 7. 

' Act. i. 31 J Act. vi. 3 ; Act. xiv. 23 j i Ti. ill. 2, 7 j Tit, i. 6. 


yet so, that the same parishe have him a certaine time amongst 
them, that they may be acquainted with his gifts and behavioure, 
and geve their consentes for his stay amongste them, if they can 
alleage no just cause to the contrary : for he may not be sent away 
again, which is so sent to a parishe, except a just cause of mis- 
liking, the cause alleaged being justly proved against him, either 
amongst themselves in their owne consistorie, so that he will 
appeale no further for his triall, or els in the next conference, or 
counsell provinciall, or nationall, unto which from one to another 
he may appeale, if he finde himselfe cleare, and if he geve over, 
they maye proceede as afore for another. And when suche an 
one is founde, to whome the parishe muste geve consent, bicause 
there is no just cause to be alleaged againste him, the nexte 
conference by whose meanes he was procured, shall be certified of 
the parishes liking, wherupon they, shall amongst themselves, agree 
upon one of the ministers, which shall be sent by them to the same 
parishe, and after a sermon made according to the occasion, and 
earnest prayer to God with fasting according to the example of the 
scriptures made by that congregation to God, that it would please 
him to direct them in their choise, and to blesse that man whome 
they choose, he shall require to know their consent, which being 
granted, he & the elders shall lay their hands on him \ to signifie 
to him that he is lawfully called to that parishe to be pastor there 
or teacher. Now, for as much as I have made mention of a 
pastor, and a teacher, of a consistory in each parish, of a con- 
ference, and of a counsell provincial, and national, I wil as brefely 
as I can declare, what cache of these meaneth, and what the use 
of them is. Ther is required in every wel reformed church these 
two things : A righte ministerie ^ of the worde and sacraments, 
and a right ^ governement of the churche, which two things are by 
our savioure commended to his church, before there were any 
churches gathered. And in the Aposdes time, when they had 
gathered severall churches or congregations, they not onely teache 
what shoulde be, but they establishe orders accordingly. In the 
ministerie therefore, after rehearsall made of those rare and ex- 
traordinarie functions of Apostles, Prophets, and Evangehstes, there 
is declared in the last place those ordinarie functions of* shepheards 
and teachers, which endure in every well ordered church, till we all 
meete together into the unity of faithe and knowledge of the Sonne 
^ Ti. iv. 14. ^ Mat. ix. 38. * Mat. xviii. 17. * Ephes. iv. 11, la, 13. 



Two sorts of God. There are then in the ministery only two sortes of 
only. The ministers, namely pastors & teachers, which doe not differ in 
difference dignitie, but in distinction of office, and exercise of their gifts, and 
offices, and y^*^ ^^ many things their office is so like, that they are confounded 
wherein Jn the name of Elders, as also the governours are with the ministers 
alike. i^ ^^^ same name confounded. But these two offices differ in 

this, that the pastor or pastors, are they that have the oversight & 
charge of the whole parish, to instruct, to admonish, to exhort, 
& to correct bi doctrine al and every one in the assemblies, or in 
the private houses of the same parishe, and to minister the 
sacraments in the same parish. The teacher (save that in the 
consistory of the same parishe, and in all conferences of ministers 
he is to be joined with the ministers) shall in such places as 
provision is made for him, & being lawfully called as afore, onely 
intend lectors, and expositions of the scriptures, to the end that 
there may be set furth, and kepte a soundnes of doctrine, a right 
& naturall sence of the scriptures, and plaine and manifest proves 
of the articles of the Christian religion, so that he oughte to be an 
The nse exquisite and mighty man in the scriptures. The use of suche an 
doctors °"^ ^^ most nedeful, wher the frie of the churche (as I might call it) 
office. is, to enter them well which after shuld be emploied to the 
ministerie, whether it be in the universitie or elswhere, that such be 
Universitie brought up to this turne. So that in deede the titles of oure 
doctors and univei-gitje doctors and bachelors of divinitie, are not onely for vain 
ofdivinitie. glory sought and graunted, but there they are the names of course, 
conferred rather by the prophane judgments of them that know 
not what office of the church they belong too, and by the importu- 
nate sute and meanes made, by such vaine men as desire to clime, 
and to have high names, and also of a blinde custome partly, 
which (besides the graces gotten easely by frendship, or corrupt 
briberie, compounding I should say, althoughe no shew of learning 
be uttered, nor exercises kept) doth in respect of continuance of 
standing in manner throw these titles upon many dolts, which 
neither do, nor can do any thing that is required in a teacher or 
doctor. And a plaine case it is, that ostentation and outwarde 
glorye is soughte by these names, & by the name of master of Arte, 
which is esteemed many degrees beneathe the titles of Doctor, or 
Bachelor in divinitie, for otherwise they would not offer those titles 
to suche as the universities would shewe pleasure unto, as to noble 
men and others, as though they were noble names, nobilitating 


them that otherwise wer unnoble, and adding to their nobilitie that 
without them were noble. And thus have they turned upside 
downe, and make a mockery of God his order, conferred upon his 
churche for the benefite of the same, excepte they will not be 
ashamed to professe themselves heerein to folowe the heathenish Heathenish 
tradition of prophane scholes, which rather seke by suche titles to traditioa. 
advaunce learning, as they say, then by their learning to advauntage 
the church of God. For none other are true teachers or doctors, 
but they which doe teache, and be founde meete, and be called by 
the churche to teache, how so ever the universitie doctors seeme 
to have some indelible Caracter, that once and ever doctor, as the 
popishe priests once shaven, were ever priestes, and can never be 
no priestes after, but such doctors as these, though they had never 
so many graces, shall be but idol doctors, as truely doctors, as an 
image is a man, which hath nothing but the shew of a man, eyes 
and see not, eares and heare not, and so they, teachers & doctors, 
and teache not. These vaine names become such vaine men, but 
the churche of God they become not, and are forbidden by oure 
savioure ^. Be not you called Rabbines, and to be called Rabbines 
is the matter with oure doctors, but to teach, that is to base or 
needelesse for them. I have spoken the more of this, bicause the 
abuse is great, and not thoughte of, for howsoever it will be faced 
out, that name is not a name of dignitie, but a name of duety to be 
done to the church of God, by him that hath the excellent gift of 
faithfuU & right expounding of the scriptures, and of the un- 
doubted proving and avouching of all the articles of our christian 
religion, which is most requisite in place where I said before, and 
very requisite every where, & is to be had where competent provision 
may be made for suche an one. Thus you see breefely howe 
these two differ, and what is the use of the teachers or doctors 

Now the pastors in their charges and parishes, have not only to The nse of 
propounde sounde doctrine, but also charge to exhort, and to ^ J pastois 
admonish publiquely and privately them that they finde to neede it, that it is 

and to examine them, and to Cathechise them in their faith, upon ''^q'^^^'*^ '" 
' ' ^ everye con- 

whome onely lieth the charge of the whole congregation, whether gregation. 
there be a teacher, or doctor or no. For if the doctor faithfully 
kepe his lectures, and answer his calling by godly life, there is no 
further thing to be required of him, save, that in the consistorie 
1 Mat. xxiii. 8. 
H 2 


(againe I say) he apply himselfe with the pastors to guide and 

directe the rest of the assistantes, and in like sorte joine himselfe 

with the pastors in their conferences, councels, and such like 

meetings. But every congregation must have a pastor, I saye not 

a parsone, vicare, or stipendarie priest, or curate (as they call him) 

but a pastor or shepherd, which is able, and dothe intend feeding 

of them, every way, by preaching doctrine, by exhorting to the 

same, and to godly life, by admonishing offenders, by conference 

with them, by visiting the sicke, to teache and counsell them, by 

Cathechising the congregation, by making prayers, by ministring 

the sacraments, and examining before hand the communicantes, 

and whatsoever he is directed unto by the prescripte of the woorde 

The good of God. And these two offices thus set up, according to the 

ensneth scriptures, there remaineth no use of fat canons, prebendaries, 

of the petie canons, singing men, quiresters, virgirs, and the rest of that 

erecting of r • i i • ^ ■, 

a rii^hte crue, nor yet or rovmg preachers, which preach quarter sermons, 

ministerie. nor of Stipendarie curates, & that unbrideled (untituled cleargye 
I shoulde say) but that the livings of the former might be bestowed 
upon the maintenance of the righte ministerie, and the latter to be 
no longer an unprofitable burden to the churche. And further, 
such provision being made, there shalbe no nede of such dignities, 
as they call them, nor of qualifications for many benefices, as 
pluralities, trialities, totquots, and I wot not what conferring of 
benefices, or prebends upon bishops, to amende their livings 
forsothe. All this good commeth of the erecting of a right 
ministerie, besides the faithfull discharging of so greate a charge 

L, Bishops as the feeding of Christes flocke is. And also this I say, it is so 

1 3.k c 13. rrfi 

more ^^.rre of that anye can take upon him the charge which our Lord 

charge Bishops do, as they say, one of them to be parson (pastor they 

then they ' seme to meane) of a whole diocesse (moste diocesses containing 

are able to divers shires) yea, and some one of a province (containing many 

diocesses) that in deede it is in manner too much for one to take 

charge of one only parish, and to say truth, if every parish were 

able (as it wold be provided for, by restoring impropriations, by 

augmenting of the livings, & by joining moe parishes in one) if 

that require everye parishe I say, were by some suche meanes made able, it 

rather two were meete every parishe had two pastors at least, bothe for the 

over one common charge that Heth upon the shoulders of the pastors, and 

flocke, then for sondry uses that their congregations have to employ them upon, 

many. °^ cheefely, bicause in the sicknesse of the one, the other might 


supplie. And the pastor or pastors being rightly called, maye not 

be put away, but for such causes, and in such sort as was said 

before, nor he or they maye not leave their charge, for he or they 

have a necessity ^ of tarying on their charge laide upon them with 

their charge, except by the good order of the churches it be The pastor 

thought expedient, or when the shepe are wolves, & so they driven ™^^g ^°g 

to fiie from them : so that our resignations wil not stand with the flock at 

his owhg 

word of God, much lesse wil our non residents abide the triall, pleasure. 

both serving the covetousnesse of gredy bellied wolves, the one to 

fleece without care of feeding, excepte it be themselves either in 

some chaplains roume, or in some other stye, to spare their labor 

where they should entende: The other serveth him that ever 

gapeth for a greater pray, or to make mony when other shiftes 

faile. And further, I will not excuse all those that either resigne, 

or suffer them selves to be deprived to avoide further trouble, 

without consideration of their flocke, if the same conspire not 

generally against them, seeing they oughte to give their lives for 

their flocke '^. But this is not thought to be so needefull, nor in 

deede were so nedefull, if to reade the scriptures, the homilies, 

and the course of oure booke of common prayers were inough, for 

then a boy of ten yeares olde may do the ministers office, for the 

substance of their office is not in the yeares, but in the reading. 

And in deede boyes and sencelesse asses are oure common 

ministers for the moste parte, for, but common reason may serve 

this turne, and doe this feat well inough. It is in deede lesse Our conrse 

busye then popishe priestes service, bycause the kalender and the desrtoyeA 

rubrikes of the booke are fewer: and playner than his portuise and this care of 

pie were, so that lesse clarkes then popishe priestes, which had but floj^j-g 

some blinde Latin in their belly, may serve for our store, & ther- 

fore in deede the blindest bussarde of them, if hee will keepe his 

conscience to himselfe, nay he is not so narowly loked unto, if 

he will subscribe to our Articles of Christian religion before his 

ordinarye, and blindely reade them at his benefices, he shall not 

onely be serving priest (I use their owne termes) but he may have 

one Benefice or moe, and nothing shall, nor may be saide against 

him, and so he provide his quarter sermons, or pay his Ordinarie 

for that default and such like, he is as good a Pastor as the best. 

And yet I thinke verely, the laste Parliament save this, meant very A good 

well in this respecte, by a statute provided in this case, so that ^j^^ j^^^ 

1 I Cor. ix. i6. 2 Jh. x. ii. parliament, 


taketh many a leud Priest of them (if the Ordinarie had bene good, not 

K^^i being corrupted by bribes, or by their bribed officers and servaunts) 

by the ' would have bene removed, and the benefices readye for better 

negligence pastors, but I can heare of none, or few so badde, but he is where 

and cor- r ' 

ruption he was, and my Lorde Bishoppe his great frende commonly, for it 

^^^^ ■ seemeth by some of them, that they smell my Lords the Bishoppes 

as they meaning, is to make their hande nowe, and to money themselves 

call them. ^Q-^vg^ and provide for their wife and children somewhat honestly 

(I will not say pompously) for fear of afterclaps against a rainye 

day, whatsoever time or change come, and this humoure these 

Priestes, and all other Time servers feede full handsomely, and it 

serveth their purposes in deede fullye. No, no, this is not that 

ministerie, which we have neede of, and which God erected in his 

Reading of churche, reading an Homilie, is Popishe and fond, whether they be 

came\n^by Bedes homilies, or anye other auncient writers homilies, which in 

abuse, and times past Upon the like erroure, were devised to supplie the like 

eth^an ' ^^^^^ of preaching, all thoughe afterward they red them or sung 

idoll them in an unknowne tongue : or they be our bishoppes homilies 

in oure owne tongue, for faith commeth by hearing, and hearing 

not by homilies : but by the ^ worde of God, & in deede reading 

of the word is as good, and better preaching, then reading of 

The minis- homilies, but the ministerie of faythe is the preaching of the same, 

fai2i°is the °^^^ °^ ^^^ woorde of God, by them that are sent of God. How 

preaching can they preach except they be'^ sent, as it is written, howe 

same^ beautifull are the feete of them which bring good tidings of peace : 

they must be sent of God, endued with the giftes of God, furnished 

with his graces unto that ministerie, that they may be able to bring 

the good tidings of peace, and good things to their congregations* 

that their feete may be beautifull to them, that they may knowe 

that they are jewels of God bestowed upon his churche, that everye 

churche may be assured they have a treasure of their minister or 

The waye ministers. This is the righte way to bring the ministerie into 

the m^nis- credite and estimation, their giftes given them of God, & their 

terie into painfulnesse, and honest life amongst their congregations, & not 

estimation. ^^ make some of them Lordes, Graces, Earles, Prelate, and 

Register of the Garter, Barons, Suffraganes, some of them riche 

Deanes, Archdeacons, masters of ColledgeSjChauncellors, Prebendes, 

rich persons and vicares, and thoughe some of them be poore 

inoughe, to gette them credite by their rochets, hoodes, cappes, 

1 Ro. X. 17. ' Ro. X. 15. 


clokes, tippets and gownes, or such like implements used by the ^ 
Phariseis whiche claimed highe roumes, and made large borders 
on their garmentes, & loved to be greeted, and to be called Rabbi, 
whiche things by our savioure are forbidden his ministers, and an Our saviour 
order enjoined, that they which loke for it, shuld not have it, but i^^^ minis- 
be least esteemed. This is true, reade the scriptures youre selves ters to 

sclcc to 
I pray you, if you finde it not so, disprove us, if it be founde so, ^e noted by 

strengthen us by your authorities, and lette the worde of God have outward 
the free course that it ought to have. They be but pretences to ^^ guises, 
serve the glorious course that some of oure ministers are entred 
into, when they say, it is the credite of the ministerie, and the 
upholding of the same, and this way of oures, is the discrediting 
and overthrowing of the ministerie, & of all good orders, and to 
bring confusion into the churche, and as they pretende plaine 
Anabaptistrie. But they are no better but pretences and flat 
untruthes, for it is God his owne order set by our savioure and his 
Apostles in his church, and I trust (as breefely as I can) to make 
it appeare to be God his order, and the best order, and the onely 
order which should be in the churche of God. And as for the 
order which they pretend to be maintained by them, it may be that 
they knowe their order when they ride in their scarlet roabes before 
the Queene, and howe to poll their cleargye as they call them, and The covet- 
all other in their diocesses, & howe to lease oute benefices to the °°^ abuses 

that are 
patrones, or by the persone or vicare and patrones meanes royally too com- 

to lease them out to some other, or to alienate the house, or the ^'^^ 

among the 
gleebe for a round summe of money to their Lordships chestes, or bishops. 

bribes to their wives, or to their children, or to their officers, or 

servauntes, that they may have their share thereby, or how to kepe 

their courtes, and gette them officers for their best advauntage, or 

howe to rattle up these new fellowes, these yong boyes that will not 

obey at a becke to their articles, advertisements, canons, caveates, 

and such like stuffe of their owne forging, or whatsoever proceedeth, 

or is from, or for their Lordly estate and degree, or howe to 

pleasure their frende, or frendes, or freendes freende, with a 

Benefice, or with a Prebende: so that it maye bee a good turne 

to themselves, comming by simonie away, or howe to lease out 

their owne temporalities of their bishopprickes, yea & possible 

alienate them from their successors, and howe to matche their 

sonnes and their daughters together, with great summes of money 

^ Math, xxiii. 5,6, 7, n. 


passing betweene them, and how to purchase lands and leases in 

their wives & childrens names, bicause if they were priests, their 

children cannot inherite, nor are legitimate by the lawes, and howe 

to raise fines and rentes, and many suche good orders moe, they 

Examina- ^ltq verye skilfuU in it, and keepe very diligently. I woulde for 
tion of the . c ■, ■ . ■ . , , , , , 

bishops experience, some oi their doings were examined, and then no doubt 

doings we shoulde see manye of these goodly orders brought to light, 
very ex- o j o o 

pedient. -^^^^ ^^^^ '^^ t)e examined, I would that they which are honest men, 
woulde bring to lighte their doings which they knowe, for as finely 
as they have handled the matters, there are some which know 
inough, and I trust they will impart it ere long to the state, 
that they which are of so sharp a sight to see who offende them, 
may themselves lie open, and shew how they offend God and 
his church, and howe utterly unnecessary they are, and to be 
removed from their roumes, and their roumes from the churche, 
which by them are continued to stall the popishe Bishops in their 
pompe againe, if ever their time serve them heere. For good 
orders, lette us heare any one they make, but even as the lawe 
directeth them, which any other temporall officers might, and 
woulde doe as well as they, if the lawes did not prohibite it. And 
there is none other but lawes with them, no God his booke, no 
brotherly talke with them, they will not runne in a premunire for 
any of all their brethren, nor for any of God his matters neither. 
The Bis- they will not have the Queenes displeasure for any of them all, they 
hops owne wil not be defaced whatsoever commeth of it, nay they wil raile 
extreme upon, and revile their brethren, they will persecute and prisone 
cruelties, them, they will stirre her majestic and all other against them, they 
will sterve, stiffle, and pine them to death. Howe many good 
mennes deathes have they bene the cause of, by an inwarde sorrowe 
conceived of their doings ? howe sodainly dyed master Pullen after 
they began to rage? M. Horton? M. Carvell and many others? 
and howe did they kill that good mannes heart, olde good M. 
Coverdale? although they pretended they wold provide for him, 
after much adoe from the counsell, and as they say, from the Queene 
to them, & yet they allotted him a small portion, and paide him by 
fittes, and sometimes with base golde, and mony if they had any 
worse then other, which I have heard very crediblye reported. 
Olde D. Turner was muche beholding to them, being a good man, 
«& an auncient preacher, never shaven nor greased, & yet he had 
no small stirre by them. M. Leaver, M. Samson, and some other, 


al this day learned & godly, howe have they greeved their good 
heartes ? utterly leaving some of them without living, to the wide 
worlde, to shifte as they can. And yet they may not shifte some 
of them by those giftes which God hath given them, they may 
neither preache, nor teache children publikely nor privately. And 
they that are in some livings, what sorowe doe they holde them 
withall, and howe tickhshly doe they holde them to, evermore in 
danger of being called before the highe Commissioners, and to 
loose those livings. How many have they driven to leave the 
ministerie, and to live by Phisicke, and other suche meanes, or to 
leave their countrey ? Howe many students have they discouraged 
from the studie of divinitie, and to chaunge their mindes since they 
sawe their dealings, and to chaunge their studies also ? Howe many 
poore Artificers and other commoners in this citie, and elsewhere, 
have they ill entreated ? brought up slaunders upon ? and by their 
ill usage and lacke of diligent conference, have they not suffered 
to fall, but have bene the cause that they have fallen into errors ? 
Contrarywise, what incouragement and favor have they shewed to 
papists? how have they opened their eares to their complaints 
against the ministers, and shut their eares when Papists have bene 
complained upon, or slightly overpassed it. Yea some of them 
have saide, that conformable Papistes were more tollerable then 
these precisians and godlye men that seeke for reformation ? 
Hanson of Oxforde, which amongst other articles was charged I wis you 
justly, and is yet to be proved that he saide Storie was an honest precisians 
man, & was put to death wrongfully, and had frendes alive would as you call 
revenge his death one day, howe slightly did the Bishop of ^^^^j^^ g^^,. 
Canterbury use him ? what frendshippe founde Thurlbie in his jects then 
house .? may poore preachers be halfe so wel used, or such other ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 
poore men, which led by the word of God, doe freely utter their make 
consciences against the abuses in our Reformation ? Or rather shal 
not they find harder dealing then Hanson did : will not they take 
on more againste the author of this booke and suche like, then 
against Hanson ? Lette us proceede, who be their Chauncelloures ? 
but most suspected papistes, I heare not of one of them that is no 
briber. Who be their sumners but the veriest varlets .? What are 
the Canonistes ? What are they but suspected Papistes ? and where 
have they their moste countenaunce, but of the bishops ? to be their 
cheefest doers, and highe Commissioners with them, to wring their 
brethren, and if they be God his children, and to let papistes scape 


as worthy 
to have 

as our 
but they 
might not, 

Of the 
lordship of 

scottefree, or to be punished but lightly : what causes deale they in 
for the good of the church? certainly fewe at all, but as they 
should doe they deale in none. How are matters dealt in in their 
courts, but all for mistresse money ? who can recken their disorders ? 
in those former Treatises you reade of a blessed companie, doe 
you not ? howe stiffe & sturdie are they in the maintenance of their 
disorders? how have they shaken of the honest sutes of many 
honest worshipfull citizens and others : yea, of honorable person- 
ages which have dealt with them for those whome themselves ought 
to have had most care of? Howe lightly have they esteemed the 
learned letters of manye famous men at home, & abrode, written 
unto them in the same case ? howe many honest men have they by 
their flatterie and tirannie perverted, and drawne to their side ? 
whereof many live with wounded consciences at this day amongste 
them, and yet for feare of losse of Hving (for they muste have a 
living they say) doe therfore serve the bishops appetites. What 
a charge are they to their cleargie ? and what a summe have they 
yeerely, that might be saved ? and it is no smal matter that main- 
taineth their courtes, all which charges might be saved also, and 
matters belonging to the government of the church might be better, 
& more godly ended. To conclude this parte withall, what is 
more expresly forbidden in the scriptures, then those names and 
offices which they have. Oure savioure saith expresly to his 
Apostles', you shal not be called gracious Lords: and surely they 
were as worthy as any ministers were since, or shall be, yea, they 
were the Archbuilders, not the Archbishops, nor was there anye 
Archbuilder of them one more then another, and not anye since 
allowed to have the name of Archbuilders. And albeit any woulde 
have called them gracious Lords, and geven it them, yet they 
mighte not have taken it, but oure menne though they have used 
the same texte, and other learned men as a plaine text use it also, 
againste the dignitie that the Pope chalengeth above all other 
bishops, and against his two swordes, yet it meaneth no suche 
matter with oure men, but that they may be Lords over their 
brethren, and use civill jurisdiction also. It forbiddeth them to 
seeke it, they say, but if it be offered to them, they take it. Our 
savioure refuseth to divide the land betweene the two brethren 
when it was offered him ", he avoideth when they soughte to make 

* Luke xxii. 35, 26. 

" Luke xii. 13, 14 ; Job. vi, 15 ; Jh. xviii. 36 ; Mat. xx. 38. 


him a king? what thinke you he would taken it, if it had bene 
orderly offered by the whole state ? no, he saith : my kingdome is 
not of this worlde, or a worldly kingdome, I came not to be 
ministred unto, but to minister, and even so he telleth his disciples, 
it muste be amongste them. And yet further, dothe that text forbid 
ambition in the ministers, and allowe it in princes ? for he dis- 
proveth not the kings that they are lordes, and exercise authoritie 
over their nations, and have great tides, for not onely there, but 
the scripture is plain, that they may so doe, and yet not be 
ambitious, which they may be, if they contente not themselves 
with their owne countreys, and titles, but covet others. But in If bishops 
this place he sheweth ^, that they muste not exercise authoritie as Lordship 
civill magistrates doe, and may doe, nor be one above another, upon them, 
you shall not be so, he that is cheefe among you, let him be your forbidden 
servaunte, so that if they will take it, it may not be given them, to give it 
The apostles, they also avoided it amongst themselves, and they 
forbid it in others, as the place of Peter is plaine, and so plaine, 
that it is a worldly wise way to seeke some other shifte to face oute 
the matter, and to underprop this ruinous Hierarchic withall. 
The scriptures are plaine against it, and therfore some other device 
must be found at a pinche, to flap the world in the mouth with 
somewhat: to tel them that good and auncient chronicles make 
mention of the lordly degree of bishops, and to bring forthe the 
heraldes craft to helpe out the matter, to blase the armes of such 
worthy prelates as have ben of long time before. This were a 
worldly wise way, and as I heare, is entended to be practised. 
But surely if this be practised, they must also practise to stoppe 
the course of the scriptures, for else the scriptures will on the 
other side display as faste, the follie of such proude men. Heere 
some keepe hote schooles, what say they, every one as good as 
another amongst the ministers? shall not one be better than 
another ? what is disorder if this be not ? well this is God his 
order, and in dede as I said afore, the best order. How is that 
saith another ? Thus I say. First, let no one minister meddle Not one 
in any cure save his owne, but as he is appointed by common '^"^*?|^'^- *'° 
consent of the next conference, or counsels (as afore) provinciall anothers 
or nationall, or further if it may fall out so, generall of all churches '^"^^ 
reformed : A conference I call the meeting of some certaine mini- order, 
sters, and other brethren, as it might be the ministers of London, 

* Mat. XX. 27. 


A con- at some certaine place as it was at Corinth ^, or of some certaine 
erence. deanrie, or deanries in the countrie, as it might be at Ware, to 
conferre and exercise them selves in prophesying, or in interpreting 
the scriptures, after the which interpretation, they must conferre 
uppon that whiche was done, and judge of it, the whole to judge 
of those that spake, and yet so, as some one be appointed by all, 
to speake for them, as they shall amongs them selves agree what 
shall be spoken, which thing was alwayes used among the Aposdes, 
one to speake for the rest, which conferences may sometime be 
more generall then other sometime, as occasion of the Churches 
may require, to call the brethren together. At which conferences, 
any one, or any certaine of the brethren, are at the order of the 
whole, to be employed uppon some affaires of the church, which 
they shall shewe to be needefuU for the same. So was John & 
Peter sent by the Apostles to Samaria ^ to confirme Philips worke. 
So was Paule and Barnabas sent from Antioche to the businesse 
appointed them by the Lord ^, and yet so (which I wold have well 
marked) that the holy Ghost saide to the congregation : Separate 
me Barnabas and Saule for the worke whereunto I have called 
them, he might have called them forth without these words to 
them of the assemblie, but that he would shewe how he approved 
of that order, and the more the order is commended, that he would 
have Saule, one of his Apostles, to be thus sent by those wherof 
none were of the Apostles. At this assembly also, the demeanours 
of the ministers may be examined, and rebuked, as Paule witnesseth 
he did in an assembly rebuke Peter*. This is that which I call 
a conference, where sondry causes within that circuit, being 
brought before them, may be decided and ended. But it is to be 
used continually, for the exercise of the ministers, and others, as it 
shoulde seeme by the Apostle in the place to the Corinthes, to 
A Synode exercise their giftes in the interpretation of the scriptures. I call 
natiL'naU ' ^^^^ ^ Synode provinciall, which is the meeting of certaine of the 
& uni- consistorie of every parishe within a province, which is of manye 
conferences, as it mighte be that whiche is called Canterburies 
province, if it be not to large, and therefore of some one or moe 
diocesses : where great causes of the churches, which could not be 
ended in their owne consistories, or conferences, shall be heard 
and determined, and so they shall stande, except when a more 
generall Synode, and councell of the whole land be, which I call 
' I Cor. xiv. * Act. viii. 14. ^ Act. xiii. a. * Gala. ii. 14. 

versa 11. 


nationall, and they will have it hearde there, to whose determination 
they shall stande, excepte there be a more general Synode of all 
churches, and that they will have it heard there, and determined, 
whereto they shall stande, as it was at Jerusalem, except it be 
a great matter of the faith, or a great matter expresly against 
the scriptures, as that was in the Nicene councell of the mariage of 
ministers, where the whole councel wold have concluded against 
it, had not one manne Paphnutius withstoode them, or that assembly 
where Nicodemus ^ onely withstoode the rest, or that at Antioche 
where Peter and Barnabas and all the Jewes were entred into a 
dissimulation^, and onely Paule withstoode them. In which case the 
scripture saithe, you have one father, one master, and heare him, and 
examine all things, and holde that which is good, and trie the spirites 
whether they be of God, or no, and againe sayeth the apostle': 
Though we or an angell from heaven preache any other gospell 
unto you then that which we have preached unto you let him 
be accursed *. Except I say it be in suche a case, they must stande 
to the determinations as afore. And otherwise then thus, let no 
one minister use, or chalenge any authoritie out of his owne charge. 
And there let him, or them (if they be two pastoures or moe in 
one charge) not only alone meddle with the charge of preaching, 
and other suche partes of the pastor, but also let him or them 
in that consistorie, and in all other conferences and councels let 
the ministers go before, as I might say, and guide the other of the 
assistantes and elders, in the government, as it is in the councell at 
Jerusalem^. But before I speake more of the governement, let 
us a little consider of this order of the election of the ministers, 
and these exercises and conferences for the continuaunce of sounde 
religion, and of the equalitie of ministers, whether the bishops 
course be better, or this be the best. First, this is well warranted A com- 
by the scriptures, and theirs is not. Theirs hath already bene the betweene 
cause of many mischeefes, and this the cause of muche good in the former 
the primitive churche, and is so still where it is practised in the of^t^e^ 
reformed churches beyond the seas. This alloweth only painful ministerie, 
and true preachers, theirs ignorant Asses, loitering and idell bishops 
bellyed Epicures, or prophane and heathenishe Oratoures, that order, 
thincke all the grace of preaching lieth in affected eloquence, in 

^ Joh. vii. 51. ' Gal. ii. 14. 

' Mat. xxiii. 8, 9 ; Mat. xvii. 5 ; i Th. v. 21. 
* I Jh. iv. I ; Galat. i. 8. * Act. xy. 12. 


Prophane fonde fables to make their hearers laughe, or in ostentation of 
preac ers. jg^p^ing of their Latine, their Greke, their Hebrue tongue, and 
of their great reading of antiquities : when God knoweth, moste 
of them have little further matter then is in the infinite volumes 
Common of common places, and Apothegmes, culled to their hands. But 
places and j|- ^^iQy carye away the praise of the people for their learning, 
thegmes. thoughe the people have learned little or nothing at their handes 
(for they can not learne muche, where little is spoken to purpose) 
Merye or for some mery tales they have tolde, or such like pageants 
^^ ^^' to please itching eares withall, suche a fellowe muste have the 

benefices, the prebendes, the Archdeaconries, and suche like 
loiterers preferments, especially if he can make lowe curtesie to 
my Lordes, and know his manners to every degree of them, or 
can creepe into some noble mannes favoure to beare the name 
of his chapleine, this is he that shall beare the preferments awaye 
Flaunting from all Other, and to flaunte it out in his long large gowne, and 
preac ers. j^j^ tippet, and his little fine square cappe, with his Tawnie coates 
after him, Asking over the citie to shewe him selfe, none can have 
Long that he may have, except some certaine fatte fellowes, with long 

^^^' bagges at their girdels, and some in their sleeves, or with a dishe of 

M. Latimers apples. Corruption, too muche corruption in these 
matters. This order avoideth intrusion into any benefices, but 
to be chosen by the consent of that parishe where they shall be 
ministers, and there to tary. Theirs, so the patrone present, and 
the bishoppe institute, thrusteth uppon parishes suche, as what so 
ever they are, they cannot be refused, and may resigne or other- 
wise departe as they liste. Theirs appointeth not onely moe 
boy ministers, & dumbe dogges not able to barke, then they 
wot where to bestowe, but also many roving preachers, to preache 
in whose cure they list, out of all order. This, appointeth every 
pastor to his charge, and by a very good order, none to meddle 
out of his owne charge. By this, all without exception, are drawne 
& driven to exercise them selves among them selves, for the 
encrease of knowledge, and for the confirmation of them in the 
undoubted truth. Theirs appointeth at their lordshippes pleasure, 
and their Archdeacons, their men either to say a parte of one of 
the Epistles without booke, or to turne it out of Latine into 
Englishe, or to write their fantasies of some Theme geven them, 
wherein there is muche good stuffe if it were well knowne, or to 
learne M. Nowels Catechisme by roate, rather then by reason, 


or if they have some exercises of prophesying any where, it is 
so rawe, and withoute order, except perhaps an order not to 
speake against any of their proceedings, that as good never a whit, 
as never the better. This sheweth a ready and a right way, to 
resolve all doubts and questions in religion, and to pacific all 
controversies of the churches, to passe from one or few to moe, 
& from moe, to moe godly and learned, to be decided by them, 
according to the truthe and worde of God. Theirs raiseth many 
douts and questions in religion, breedeth many troubles and 
contentions, and wil have nothing examined that they doe, but 
many must abie for the pleasure of some one of them, and all 
must abide the determination of one, suche Lordship they claime 
over the faithe of their christian brethren. The Apostle ^ re- 
nouncing it, and acknowledging himselfe to be a helper. If they 
say Lordshippe of bishops is agreeable to the word of God, who 
may say against them without much trouble? yea, dare say 
against them ? yea, what prevaileth it to say against them, if they 
hold together ? to whom it is to swete to say, say against it, or 
if my Lords grace, Metropolitane of al England holde, & sticke 
fast in the matter 1 for so it goeth, many must to one, & so from 
one to one, til it come to the Pope of Lambeth, as it was wont 
in the Popish church, cleane contrary to the course of the 
scriptures, for there is no more ones, but only one one, to whome 
all the churche must obey, and from him, the whole church hath 
authoritie over the membres of the same, for so goeth the 
scriptures, you have but one maister, all you are brethren, heare 
him, and tell the church ^ this is the scripture. Now, except they Heare him, 
will foUowe the Popes rule, and bring the universal churche to ^^iq church, 
be but a particulare place, and a particulare man in that place, 
as Rome is the place, and the pope is the man, or as Caunterbury 
or Lambeth might be the place, and my Lorde his grace the 
man, the scriptures and their doings will not agree. And his 
Lordship shallbe a Pope, and his confederates the Popes under- 
lings, excepte they leave their Lordlinesse, and submit them selves 
to the church of God, to be ordered by the same, according to 
the woorde. And take them for better, who shall, they are none 
other, but a remnaunt of Anlichristes broode, and God amende 
them, and forgave them, for else they bid did battell to Christ and 
his church, and it must bid the defiance to them, till they yeelde. 
^ 2 Cor. i. 24. 2 Mat. xxiii. 8; Mat. xvii. 5 ; Mat. xviii. 17. 


And I protest before the eternall God I take them so, and there- 
after wil I use my self in my vocation, and many moe to no doubt 
which be careful of God his glory, and the churches libertie, will 
use themselves against them, as the professed ennemies of the 
churche of Christ, if they proceede in this course, and thus per- 
secute as they doe. What talke they of their being beyond the 
seas in quene Maries dayes because of the persecution, when 
they in queene Elizabethes dayes, are come home to raise a per- 
Persecution secution. They host they foUowe the steps of good maister Ridley 
the martir : let them foUowe him in the good, and not in the badde. 
What man. Martyr or other, is to be followed in all things ? why 
follow they not M. Hooper as well as him, who is a martir also ? 
or Rogers, or Bradforde, who are martirs also? They say all 
The those good men in quene Maries dayes died for the booke of 

q. Maryes common prayer, but they slaunder them, for they toke not so 
dayes, why slender a quarel, they died for God his boke, and for a true 
suffered? ^^^^^ grounded upon the same. Divers of those martires, would 
not in those dayes of king Edwarde, abide all the Qrders in that 
booke, but if they had had such a time beyonde the seas in the 
reformed churches, to have profited and encreased in knowledge of 
a right reformation as these men had, it is not to be doubted, but 
that they would have done better then he promised, that had rather 
all England were on a fishpoole, then he would be brought to 
matters far lesse, then now of his owne accorde he wilfully thrusteth 
him selfe upon. Why doe they not foUowe the examples which 
they sawe beyonde the seas ? In which of the reformed churches 
saw they a Lord bishop allowed? or the Canon lawe to direct 
church orders ? or will they translate the boke of common 
prayer into Latine, and their pontificall, and use the Latine of 
Turning the popishe portuise, manual, and pontifical in those matters 

trig DoIvG 

of common wherin they have folowed those bokes, and but translated them 
prayer & out of Latin, and will they require & abide the judgements of 
ficall ^^^ reformed churches concerning the matters ? If they be not 

into por- singulare, if they meane plainely, lette them doe thus. If it will 
to try the ' abide the triall, then let them use it still. They shal not be dis- 
judgements grased, but we for disquieting of them. They have freendes that 
reformed will saye for them, they are a learned company, and neede not 
churches the helpe of any other churches. Then let them offer to defende 
them re- their course by learning. Let them never goe over sea for the 
quired. matter (and yet surely I woulde some toke that translation in 


hande, & toke some paines in the matter, to procure the judge- 
ments of those reformed churches) but lette them offer free confer- 
ence heere at home. Nay, let them take our offer for conference 
(by writing to avoide muche brabble if they will) and shew them- 
selves ready to the state, withoute cunning practise to stoppe it 
by their freendes, and let us joine in it freely, and then we will 
thincke better of them, and yeelde oure selves to have beene de- 
ceived in them, if they deale plainly. O Lord that we wer deceived 
in them. That ;.hey were not wickedly bent, to maintaine that 
which they are entred into, to the great disquieting of this Churche 
of Christe in Englande, untill the Maister come, (which they thinke 
will deferre his comming) and disquiet them, whome he finedeth 
like lordly Epicures, eating & drinking with the worldly drunk - 
ardes, and beating their fellow servaunts. They that are poore 
men, already beggered by them, and which have many wayes 
bene molested and imprisoned, some in the Marshalsey, some in There is no 

the white Lion, some in the Gatehouse at Westminster, others in persecution 

nowe, tney 
the counter, or in the Clinke, or in the Fleete, or in Bridewell, say, I 

or in Newgate, they which have these many wayes and times bene reporte me 

hampered & ill handled by them, they stil offer themselves to examples. 

al their extremities, and therefore put forthe their treatises, because 

they passe not howe deare they bought it, so they might redeme 

our state out of this deformed reformation, to a righte platforme 

drawne oute of the scriptures. They say, such are men pleasers. 

Surely, if they soughte advauntage that way, it were best for them 

to please my Lords. They say they are desirous to be said to Vaine and 

be in prison, & that they profite by it, they would not then kepe ^^-gptjons 

themselves out of the way, nor when they are in, be suche suters 

to come foorthe, nor abide to be stifeled and choked with the 

stench of the prison, but that is an old shift and cunning of the 

adversary to say so. No, no, God his cause is the mater. You 

pretend a reformation, and foUowe not the worde of God, nor 

will be led by that. The summe of all therfore is this, that 

either you of the Parliament muste take order to have all reformed 

according to the worde of God, whereof already you have heard 

a parte, and shall heare breefely the rest by God his grace, or 

else they to bring your reformation to the trial of the word of 

God, and to overthrowe by the same all that we say, and al that 

the other of the best reformed churches doe use. Well they may 

conferre and yeelde, for never shall they overthrow the truthe 



Booke of 


An in- 
abuse of 










which we utter, and which the reformed churches doe practise, nor 
shall they be able to maintaine their owne doings, but by crueltie, 
& what successe that hath ever had, judge by the scriptures 
and by the papistes experience. For this order of chusing of 
ministers for their conferences and equalitie therefore, you shall prove 
none to be so good as this, which I have mentioned, nor disprove, 
but that this oughte to be in a reformed churche. Shall I examine 
their other orders ? that were infinite, but yet for the booke of 
common prayer, which of all other muste not be touched, because 
they have gotten the state so to beare it out. Even for the very 
states sake, for the princes sake, for the churches sake, and for 
conscience sake, he hathe but a badde conscience that in this time 
will holde his peace, and not speake it for feare of trouble, knowing 
that there are suche intollerable abuses in it, as it is plaine there 
are. First I say, that if it were praying, & that there were never 
an ill woorde, nor sentence in all the prayers, yet to appoint it 
to be used, or so to use it as Papistes did their mattens and even- 
song, for a set service to God, though the woordes be good, the 
use is naught. The wordes of the first chapter after S. John, be 
good, but to be putte in a tablet of golde, for a soveraigne thing 
to be worne, that use is superstitious and naughte, and so is 
the use of this service, for the order must be kept, and that being 
done, they have served God. And if they alledge that that use 
was not meant, and that it is an abuse. I say and can prove it, 
that if it be an abuse, it is so setled it wil not be reformed, till 
there be a reformation of praier. Againe, where learned they to 
multiplie up many prayers of one effect, so many times Glorye 
be to the Father, so manye times the Lorde be with you, so many 
times let us pray. Whence learned they all those needelesse 
repetitions? is it not the popishe Gloria patri? their Dominus 
vobiscum? their Oremus? Lorde have mercye upon us, Christe 
have mercy upon us, is it not Kyrie eleeson, Christe eleeson ? their 
many Pater nosters, why use they them ? But as though they were 
at their beades. The words be good, so were they when they 
were in Latine, but the use is naught, forbidden by oure savioure : 
you when you pray use not vaine repetitions as the heathen doe *, 
saythe he. And then the Collect for the day to be used at ende 
of mattens, what shall I call it ? and afore the epistle and gospel 

prayers, no as they call it. The 

boke is suche a 
» Mat. vi. 7. 

peece of worke as it is 


straunge we will use it, besides I cannot accompt it praying, as praying, 
they use it commonly, but only reading or saying of prayers, even j^any^^'"^ 
as a childe that learneth to reade, if his lesson be a prayer, he guises 
readeth a prayer, he dothe not pray, even so is it commonly a ^ us'ed ^ 
saying, and reading prayers and not praying, the childe putteth rather of 
of his cap as wel as the minister. For thoughe they have manye ^^l^^ ^f ' 
guises, nowe to knele, and nowe to stande, these be of course, reason & 
and not of any pricke of conscience, or piercing of the heart most or con^ ^ 
commonly. One he kneeleth on his knees, and this way he science, 
loketh, and that way he loketh, another he kneeleth him selfe a 
sleepe, another kneeleth with suche devotion, that he is so farre 
in talk, that he forgetteth to arise till his knee ake, or his talke 
endeth, or service is done. And why is all this ? but that there 
is no suche praying as should touche the hearte. And therfore 
another hath so little feeling of the common prayer, that he 
bringeth a booke of his owne, and though he sitte when they 
sitte, stand when they stande, kneele when they kneele, he may 
pause sometime also, but moste of all he intendeth his owne 
booke, is this praying ? God graunt us to feele oure lackes better 
then thys, and to take a better order then this for prayer, it is 
& will be all naught else. Againe, the Psalmes be all red in forme 
of prayer, they be not all prayers, the people seldome marke them, 
and sometime when they marke them, they thinke some of them 
straunge geare, and all for that they are but only red, and scarse Reading of 
red oftentimes. It is a very simple shift that you use to shift it P^*™^^- 
with an Homilie, to expounde darke places of scripture, for they 
be darkly expounded that be expounded, and many places more 
darke then you rehearse any, whiche are not once touched. 
Simple and homely geare in divers homelies there is. There is 
none other helpe I canne tell you, but plaine preaching which is 
God his plaine order. What reason to sing the chapters of Singing of 
scriptures ? and yet so they may in a plaine tune. Are all the chapters, 
praiers that are used, agreeable to the scriptures? to let passe 
the Benedictus, where I woulde knowe howe I might say in my Benedictus, 
prayer : for thou childe shalt be called the Prophet of the highest, 
and the Magnificat, where I woulde knowe howe any man, yea, or Magnificat, 
woman either might say the tenure of these very woordes : for he 
hathe regarded the low degree of his handmaide, for beholde from 
henceforthe all generations shall call me blessed ? marke this well, 
and you can never answere it well, but that it is a palpable follye, 

I a 


and vaine praying. To let these passe, I woulde knowe in what 

canonicall scripture they finde this prayer: O all ye workes of 

O Ananias, the Lorde ? and what they meane when they say O Ananias, 

Azarias, and Misael praise the Lord? which part of prayer is 

not according to the scripture, if all the rest be, but the whole 

thankes geving is Apochriphall, and yet those men that are 

named, were then alive, & saide it themselves, if it were truely 

their prayer, and it belongeth not to us to speake to them nowe, 

that are deade, and why to them more then to the virgin Marie, 

Peter or Paule, etc ? Let him that speaketh, speake as the woorde 

of God, sayeth the Apostle \ with what truthe can we say, that 

CoUectes ^^^ Collect which is appointed to be saide from the Nativitie to 

** ^^^ Newyeares day ? which is, that upon the nativitie day I must say, 

nativitie, that Christe vouchsafed this day to be borne, & when I read it 

and Whit- another day, I must say, he vouchsafed this day to be borne, 

and the next day againe this day. Surely I lie, one of the dayes, 

and suche a prayer is at whitsontide appointed. I would know 

wher upon they ground their Collect appointed for the service 

A CoUecte of S. Bartholomew (for we have Sainctes, and Angels, and all 

on Bartho- Hallowes service which the first treatises speak of) I woulde I say 

day. knowe whereon they ground that Collect ? wherein they pray that 

they may follow Bartholomews sermons, seeing there is never 

a sermon of his extant, and so we shall folow we wot not what ? 

or that they pray that the church may preach as he did, when as 

they neither have his sermones,nor yet the whole church may preach, 

but the ministers of the church only. Is this praying ? God forgive us, 

it is a wicked pratling. By what scripture have they Lent service ? 

Service for Ashwedensday service ? thre Collects for that day ? There is also 

^-^d'' d " ^ Commination grounded uppon great reason, if that be well 

etc. marked, which the priest (forsothe) must say at the entraunce 

A Com- jjito thg matter, that is, what a peece of Discipline was in former 

times kept about the holy time of Lent, which untill it be restored, 

would be supplied with this Jewishe^ order. But what place of 

scripture dothe induce them to reduce this ceremonie ? or what 

place of scripture woulde warrante such a peece of discipline 

as there they seeme verye desirous to have restored? as who 

shoulde saye suche devises of observances for^ dayes and times 

were profitable or sufferable in Christes churche. Let them 

endevoure to commend god his discipline, which should be all the 

^ I Pe. iv. i8. * Deu. xxvii. 13, 14. ' Galat. iv. 9, 10, 11. 


dayes and times of cure life exercised in Christes churche. Let 
them require that. I would knowe what there is in Athanasius Athana- 
Creede, that that must be upon highe dayes (as they terme them) creede. 
rather then the Apostles Creede ? I woulde know why Venite may Venite. 
not serve at Easter as it must all the yeare afore, and after folow 
Domine labia ? it is surely a straunge thing to see the fansies that 
this boke is full of. I overpasse the dry Communion (as they 
call it) the Epistle, the Gospel, the Offertorie, and because they 
have in the former treatises touched many things of the sacraments, 
of matrimonie, of confirmation, & of the rest, I the more willingly 
skippe over manye things else, saying shortly that the sacraments 
are wickedly mangled & prophaned. But as for Confirmation, Confirma- 
as it hath no ground out of the scriptures at all, so I wold have °°* 
their prayer marked, how they recken up the sevenfold grace as 
the papistes did? neither more nor lesse, where they have one 
grace more, then the xi. of Esay hath, which they allude to. And 
again, they have farre fewer then are mentioned in the rest of the 
scriptures. Lorde, to see these very follies, may not this booke 
be altered neither in matter nor manner? Surely, then have you 
a mannerly sort of ministers * that strain curtesie to forbeare to lie, A man- 
and to forbeare superstition, when they seeme to present themselves ornfin^s- ^ 
before the Lord, which can worse like such service then you can ters. 
to forbeare it. I have thus much further examined the orders 
that these men use in prayer, beside the generall observation, that 
they allowe prayer in a publique place without a sermon, which 
is rightlye prohibited in Churches reformed. Would the word of 
God thus negligently, thus fantastically, prophanely, and heathen- 
ishly be preached? or the sacraments be so wickedly, with out 
examination at the supper, or sinceritie at baptisme, be so (I say) 
wickedly ministred? woulde prayers be made either that were 
so folishe, or so superstitious, or so false, or the best of them so 
undevoutlye, if there were suche righte orders as were in the 
churches planted by the Apostles, as is in the best reformed 
churches, and ought to be in oures ? What though these men be, 
and wil be taken so learned, so right, that they neede learne of 
none other, are not these their orders ? doe they not maintaine 
them? doe they not persecute them that speake againste them? 
and yet I praye you are they not starke naught? yea, and so 
are divers of them, not onely for their bribing and corruption, 
1 Jere. vi. 16, 17, 18, 19, ao, 21. 


some of 
them in 
and some 
The boke 
of Articles 
of christian 

The Crede 
in meter. 


sute of a 

The last 





wherof it 




and their arrogancie, their tyrannic, but for flat heresie in the 
sacrament, and some bee suspected of the heresy of Pelagius. 
For the first, that is concerning the sacrament, the bishops are 
notoriously knowne which erre in it, and for Free will not onely 
they are suspected, but others also. And in deede the booke of 
the Articles of christian religion speaketh very daungerously of 
falling from grace, which is to be reformed, bicause it too muche 
enclineth to their erroure. Other things there are maintained by 
some of them which are not agreeable with the Scripture : namely 
the false interpretation of this clause in our Creede (he descended 
into hell) which is expresly set downe contrary to the scriptures 
in the Creede made in meter in these wordes : His spirite did after 
this descend into the lower parts, to them that long in darknesse 
were, the true light of their heartes. If they can warrant this oute 
of the scriptures, then Limbus patrum, & within a while purgatorie 
will be founde oute there. And yet this must be priviledged, and 
suche like divers matters disagreeing with the scriptures, as in the 
humble sute of a sinner it is saide, that the Saintes and Angelles 
see Christes bloudye woundes as yet, and in their last great Bible 
in the first edition of it, such a sight of blasphemous pictures of 
God the father, as what they deserve for it, I will referre them to 
none other judge then their owne note uppon the 15 verse 
of the fourth of Deuteronomie, we holde I wotte not what heresies 
that speake against their pride & traditions, but they that expresly 
speake and doe againste the scriptures, holde nothing I trowe but 
verities. But lette these guides weighe the scripture, which saithe, 
you straine a gnatte, and swallowe downe a Camell ^. Wei now, 
seeing we have thus farre weighed, partly God his orders for the 
ministers election, for their exercises, and for their equalitie, that 
it is better then oure L. Bishops, for the conrinuing of sounde 
religion, and that the order of bishops is contrarie to the scriptures, 
and that they make and maintaine with crueltie against the scrip- 
tures many wicked orders, let us nowe come to the other parte, 
which is of the government of the churche, to see howe that 
standeth by the scriptures. I have alreadye made mention of 
a Consistorie, which were to be had in every congregation. That 
consisteth first of the ministers of the same congregation, as the 
guides and mouth of the rest, to direct them by the scriptures, 
and to speake at their appointment, that which shall be consented 

^ Mat. xxiii. 24. 


upon amongst them all, bicause of their giftes, & place amongst first in it. 
them, which maketh them more fit for those purposes. The assistantes 
assistants are they, whome the parish shall consent upon and must be. 
chuse, for their good judgement in religion and godlinesse, which 
they know they be of, wherby they are mete for that office, using 
the advise of their ministers therin cheefely, and having an eye 
to a prescript forme drawne out of the scriptures, at the appoint- 
ment of the Prince and state, by the godly learned menne of this Howe the 
realme, bicause of the rawnesse of this people yet, and also using ^ns^t be^" 
earnest prayers, with fasting, as in the choise of the minister, & chosen, 
having made their choise, thereafter they shall publishe their agree- 
ment in their parishe, and after a sermon by their minister, at 
their appointment, and uppon their consent the minister may lay 
his handes uppon every of them, to testify to them their admission. 
This consistorie is for that onely congregation, and must doe that wherefor 
which they doe, jointly in any common cause of the churche. t^^s ^P^' 
And these are to employe themselves, and to be employed by serveth. 
that congregation, upon the necessary and urgent affaires of the 
same churche. These are they in that church, to whome our 
saviour commaundeth them that have twise, or oftner admonished 
an offender, and he heareth them not, to utter such an offender : 
when he saith, tell the church. These are they, whose last ad- 
monition he of that church, or they which regarde not, shall be 
taken as a publicane or heathen^. These are they, that shall 
admonishe all suche in that congregation, as they knowe to live 
with offence to the church, or as be presented to them, by good 
testimonie of their offence committed. These be they, which shall 
excommunicate the stubburne, making the whole church privie to 
their doings, and shall upon repentance, take order for the re- 
ceiving such an one in againe, making open profession of his or 
their repentance, to the satisfying of the congregation. Yet ever 
so must they excommunicate, & receive the excommunicate in 
againe, that they require the assent of their whole congregation^ Assent 
shewing the grevousnesse of his fact, and howe they have pro- .,yijoig 
ceeded with him by admonition, and his contempt, which they congrega- 
shall doe, bothe bicause their upright dealing may appeare to the 
whole church, and bicause they may not usurpe authoritie over 
the whole churche, whereby we might caste out the tirannie of 
the bishops, & bring in a new tyrannic of theirs: who are 
^ Mat. xviii. 17. 





They may 
not meddle 
with the 
civil magis- 


tion and 
of the 

appointed by good order, to have the examination of matters, & 
the rest of the dealing, in the name of the whole congregation. 
Neverthelesse, what they do wel, the congregation cannot alter, 
neither shall the congregation put them, or any of them out, but 
upon just cause proved, either in that consistorie, or in some one 
of the counsels, and the cause accepted for sufficient. Neither 
may they, or any of them leave to deale in that turne, except they 
can shew good cause to that consistorie, and it to be approved 
by them, with the consent of the whole congregation, and good 
liking. For neither muste they lightly be broughte into suspition, 
nor they must not lightly of so waighty a calling \ and function 
of suche importance, no more then the ministers may. They also 
shall examine all disordered ceremonies used in place of prayer, 
and abolishe those which they finde evill, or unprofitable, and 
bring in suche orders, as their congregation shall have neede of, 
so they be few, and apparant, necessary both for edifying, and 
profite & decent order : proving it plainely to the whole church 
that it is so. And in like sorte shall they suffer no lewd customes 
to remaine in their parishe, either in games, or otherwise, but 
having conferred of suche things amongste themselves, they shall 
admonish him or them brotherly, that he or they, use them not 
any more, as unseming to Christian men to use the like, or if 
they be common, they shall geve open admonition, and it shall 
be left. In all these things, & in all things of the church, they 
shall not meddle with the civill magistrates office, nor with any 
other punishment but admonition, and excommunication of the 
obstinate. Yet this they must doe, that he which hath lived with 
offence to that congregation, although he hath suffred the punish- 
ment of the law for his offence against it, yet he shall by them 
be admonished, to satisfie the congregation to whom he hath 
geven offence, & amongs whom he dwelleth. As for example : 
he that hath usurie proved against him, so that he lose his 
principal for taking above ten in the hundred, yet shall he also 
for committing so hainous offence againste God, and his churche, 
to the very ill example of others, not be allowed to the Sacraments, 
untill he shewe himselfe repentaunt for the faulte, and study 
thereby to satisfie the congregation so offended by him. These 
shal receive the information of the deacons, for the releefe of the 
pore, & their accomptes for that which they shal lay out that way, 

1 1 Tim.v. 19. 


and of their diligence in visiting them, that the congregations maye 

by the Consistorie be certefied of all things concerning the poore, 

bothe that there may be made provision accordingly, and that the 

provision made, may be wel husbanded, and the pore may by the 

deacons be visited, comforted, and releeved according to their lack. 

Lastly, one or moe of these assistants, with one of the ministers, 

& a deacon or deacons shall be those, that shall at their churches Who 

charges meete at the provincial councell, or nationall, if there be ^ . 

any businesse that concerneth their churche. Especially, one ofthecoun- 

the ministers shall not faile, and one of his assistance, to be ^f ^?,'' ^^ 

' ' churches 

parties in any generall cause of all the churches that may be dealte affaires. 
in there, whether it be concerning doctrine, or manners. Now 
a word or two of excommunication, and deacons, because I have 
made mention of them, and then I will shew upon what scriptures 
these orders are grounded, and a little compare them with those 
which we use, and some certaine matters incident to these & then 
I will draw to an ende by God his grace. Excommunication may Of excom- 
not be used, but after sondrye brotherly and sharpe admonitions ™^i^^* 
too, & great occasions, offences, and contemptes shewed, as the 
scripture is plaine. And in these cases they are by the persons, 
and order afore, not shut oute of the church dore as we use, but Shutting 
out of the churche of God, and communion and felowshippe of the °?* of the 
saintes, they are delivered to sathan, and to be esteemed, and to be dore. 
no more taken for Christian men, till they repent, then Heathens 
or Turkes are, save that, as they may be allowed, yea and procured 
if it may be, to come to heare sermons, so also they may be con- 
ferred with by the brethren, to bring them to repentance. But they 
shall not be allowed to the sacrament, the pledge of Christ his league 
with his church, untill by repentance they may be admitted as afore 
is saide, into the fellowship of the church againe. Neither shall 
any brother, or sister, use his or their companie, but to admonishe 
them, and exhort them to repentance, or as he or she may the 
heathens company, for their necessary affaires in the world, as they 
may have dealing together \ or as a wife, which may not depart from 
her husband if he wil abide with her, and yet shee may be admitted 
to the fellowship of the congregation, if she contemne not the doing 
of the churche, but do her uttermoste to call her husband home. In 
like case, if it were the wife that were excommunicated, he shuld No pnnish- 
be admitted, and not shee. Shortly to say : Excommunication ™^°* ^° 

* I Cor. V. 9, 10; I Cor. vii. 12, 13. 

greevous in 


world, as is a fearfull thing, as it is prescribed by the scriptures, and used by 



Excommu- ^j^^ Churches of Christ reformed accordingly. No punishment to 

it in this worlde, but onely hell eternally, for he that is in it, either 
he hath his conscience seered with a bote iron, I meane it is brawned, 
and he hath no feeling, or else he cannot be without a hell in his 
conscience : for he is out of the felowship of the Sainctes, he 
cannot claime to be of Christ his body, nor that his promises and 
mercy belong to him, if he seeke not to be received by repentance 
into the congregation of Christe againe, nor he may not have that 
comfortable pledge of Christ his supper in fruition with the churche, 
till his repentance be accepted by that churche. Neither may any 
other church receive him, till he have satisfied that churche, but the 
minister and consistorie of that church, whereto he newly repaireth, 
shall inquire from whence he came, and have testimonye from 
thence, and not admit him, no more then the other churche, or if 
otherwise, to answere it at some conference or councell provinciall, 
Some or national. And besides, the civil magistrate, the nurse and foster 

sharp father of the churche, shall doe well to provide some sharpe punish- 

would be ment for those that contemne this censure and discipline of the 

provided church, for no doubt it is in the degree of blasphemie, of a heathen 
bv tne o i 

civill our savloure saith, that renounceth God, and Christ, and thus much 

magistrate ^f ^^y^^^ ^ Deacon is an officer of the church for the behoofe 
for him 1 rr 1 1 • 1 L 

that con- of the poore % chosen to this office by the congregation, by such 

temneth meanes as afore is prescribed in the choise of Elders, by advise 
excommu- , ^ ,, -i jr-i^ri 

nication, and consent, being a noted man for godly judgement, and laithtul- 

but with nesse, as it is plaine out of the scriptures, that such a one he 
lesse charge ^ ^ . , , i i 

then a shoulde be. His office is to visite the poore in deede, to loke 

significavit. (jjiigently what they lacke, and howe many they be, and what be 
deacoiTis. their names, and to certefye the Consistorie, or suche a number in 
one parishe they may be, that they shall neede a general contribu- 
tion, and then the deacon, or deacons, with those of the Consistorie 
afore named, may certefye the counsell provinciall, that a provision 
may be levied for the sustentation of those pore, which provision 
shall be delivered into these deacons handes, to be destributed and 
turned to the behoofe of that pore, and to give an accompt of that 
they destribute, and the rest in their handes to their owne Con- 
sistorie, for that which is collected there, or they, and those of the 
consistorie, as afore, to certefie it to the councell provinciall, for 
the generall contribution, howe it is truely employed. This office 

* Act. vi. 3. 


howsoever papistrye hatha converted, or perverted it, is an office 
needeful, and commaunded to the church of God, used by the Jewes 
before the comming of Christ, Christ himselfe using in his small 
companye to have one to beare provision for the pore^, the 
Apostles toke it up in the church of Jerusalem ^ The Apostle 
Paule not onely maketh mention of that office to the Romanes, 
shewing thereby that it was there, but he and Timothie saluteth 
them, writing to the Philippians ', shewing thereby that they were 
of great accompt. And writing to Timothie *, he prescribeth their 
election what it shuld be, to direct not onely the choise of them, 
but to commend the use of them to the churche. And therfore 
such ther must be procured in this Englishe church, as at this day 
there is in reformed churches. Nowe to let passe the order of 
deacons at this day, having no ground out of the scriptures, but 
folishe, and according to the pop! she canons, whereby they may 
as well make them the bishops garde, to defend him when he 
preacheth, as in those canons they are, & the eye of the bishop 
to loke about many things touching his person, as thus employ 
them. To let passe to speake thereof, seeing it is noted in the 
former treatises, this I say further, that this is God his order for 
the pore, and none that will fit it so well. Surely God be thanked 
for that care which you have had this Parliament of the poore. The i^gte 
and of the suppressing of idle and wicked vagaboundes, being in statute for 
so good a way, it may be easie to practise this way, to fortifie by 
law this course of the scriptures for the pores provision, and to 
continue that other braunche still, for the suppressing of idle and 
wicked vagabonds. For as touching the pore, which are pore in 
deede, they must have further provision, & further comfort, then 
in dede can be procured by this statute. For besides the naming 
and knowing of them, they are not enjoined to visit and comfort 
them, wherby they might be provoked to godlinesse, they may 
seke and waite for their provision, and peradventure have many 
a hard word to greeve them with, and no christian consolation, 
& they may lacke many things which they oughte to have. And 
these collectors shall not be subject to the consistorie, & con- 
gregation, to geve accompt not only of the summes collected, but 
also whether they have visited the poore, and comforted them. 
For in the primitive churche, there was suche care had of the poore, 
that there were also widowes appointed and maintained, that shuld Widowes. 
^ Luk. xxi. 4 ; Jh. xiii. 29. ' Act. vi. 13. * Phil. i. i. * i Ti. iii. 8. 


washe, picke, and kepe the things about the pore, sweete, and 
cleane *, and intend them for their necessaries, that should entertaine 
the pore straungers that travailed, and were driven from place to 
place for their conscience, and were not sufficient to maintaine 
their owne charges, to entertaine them I say, to bathe and washe 
their feete, surbatted with going, and to intende to minister to 
them, the necessaryes there provided by that church for that use. 

godly care, and very christian custome. I would, we wold in 
some part, in this our great wealth and abundance, resemble the 
care for the pore (our owne brethren, our owne fleshe) which 
the pore churches had in the time of their owne trouble, for the 
poore that then were amongst them, and repaired from other places 
to them, we should not then thus unnaturally, hardly be drawne by 
lawe to paye that we are rated at, but we would willingly stretch 
out our pursses, yea and straine our selves farre, rather then either 
they of oure owne parishes, shoulde lacke any thing, or yet the 
afflicted churches of the straungers, whiche are amongste us from 

Pore Fraunce, Flaunders, Italic, Spaine, or any other place should be 

strangers destitute, or lacke any thing for their comfort. And yet God 
pityed. knoweth, moste unchristianly, and wickedly, many of us cry out 
against pore straungers, as though we never had bene straungers, 
nor were never releved by them, or that we were not all of one 
body. Thanks be geven to God for the queenes majestie, and 
the counsel, and the rest of the honourable, worshipfull, and others 
by whose meanes they are heere supported and maintained. And 

1 am sure of it, we all fare the better for it at God his handes. 
And I beseche the whole state, & beseeche God, that the whole 
state may bend themselves to have more and more care for the 
godly straungers that are of the churches in deede, and not to be 
greeved that they are so many, but to pitie their present persecution, 
and to comforte them. For the other swine that are not of the 
churches, I pray God they may finde litle favoure, except they 
repent & joine themselves to the churches. Thus muche also of 
the Deacons. This order of the chiuch government, is grounded 
upon that saying of our savioure '^. Tel the churche, wherin it is 
certaine he alludeth to that consistorie of the Jewes, and the 
scriptures that directe their governement. And it is so certain, that 
such a consistory they had, and such elders ^ as it shall not nede 

^ I Tim. V. 5, ' Mat. xviii. 17 ; Num. xi. 

' Deu. xxxi. 9; 2 Chr. xix, 8; Synedrin; Mat. v. 22 ; i Tim. v. 17. 


further to examine those scriptures, but to come to the practise of 
the Apostles, & the churches planted by them. The apostle noteth 
that there are in the church bearing office, & ruling, which should 
be had in estimation for their office, two sortes of elders and rulers, 
wherof the one sort also ruleth, but they laboure in the woorde 
and doctrine to, and their office is the principall. He distinguisheth 
them to the Corinthes ^ the teachers and the governoures, because 
all governoures are not teachers, but because al teachers are 
governoures, as to Timothie before is said, so to the Romaines ^, 
deviding the offices of the churche into two sortes, government, 
and ministring to the pore. To the first office he assigneth doctors, 
pastors, and governors, calling them by these names, teachers, 
exhorters, and rulers, and to the second office, he assigneth deacons & 
widowes, calling the first those that minister, and the widowes those 
that shew mercy. Of the widowes I will say no further, but upon like 
occasion it is God his order. But for the other orders, they must be 
in all well ordered churches of Christians. The Apostle Paul and 
Barnabas ' set suche order in the churches whiche they planted. It 
was so in the churches of Rome, of Corinth, of Ephesus *. An order 
is sette downe what men they must be. How they are to be chosen, 
the ministers, the assistantes, the deacons, yea and the widowes, 
is declared in the Actes of the Apostles, and the epistle to 
Timothie, as afore is noted. Howe they are to procede against 
offenders, is declared by our savioure^, and practised among the 
Thessalonians, & the Corinths®, and likewise of the receiving 
againe of an excommunicate persone, and howe they should use 
him while he abideth excommunicate. And the ordering of 
things comely, and removing abuses every one to keepe himselfe 
within his vocation, so plaine the places be that it nedeth no more, 
but that it would please you to reade them, and waighe them. 
And in like sorte for conferences and councels to deale for the 
stay of the churches in true doctrine, and in godly order and 
quietnesse to the Corinthes it is plaine, and the councell at 
Jerusalem, wherein is dealt for all those causes of the churches 
at once. The persons that were sent to the councel, the persons 
that chefely dealt, and how, and the generall consent of the 

^ I Cor. xii. 28. * Rom. xii. 6, 7, 8. ' Act. xiv. 23. * Act. xx. 17. 

* Math, xviii. 15, 16, 17. 

• 3 Thess. iii. 14, 15 ; i Cor. v. 4, 5 ; 2 Cor. ii. 7, 8 j i Cor. xi. 16 ; i Cor. 
xiv. 40 ; Act. XV. 


•Older wee 
have, and 
what oure 
maye doe 
by their 
canon lawe 
& commis- 

Bishop in 
is the 
only name 
of a Lord 
but in 
scripture it 
is no lordes 
name at 

Apostles, Elders, and brethren, would be well observed, as geving 
great light for many purposes. Well, now who are our doers in 
this church government? how are they chosen? what causes doe 
they deale in ? and how do they deale ? In every parishe a con- 
sistorie there is not, nor in every great towne containing many 
parishes, nor in every shire, but onely one in a diocesse, which 
containeth divers shires. I may peradventure be deceived, for 
there may be so many in a diocesse, as there are Archdeaconries, 
besides the graund consistorie of the bishop, or his substitute the 
Chauncellor, for they say the Archdeacon or his substitute the 
officiall, may visite oftner then the bishop, & kepe courts oftner 
then the Chancellor, & there are in some diocesse divers Arch- 
deacons. But what of all this ? whence have they their aucthoritie? 
who called them ? what causes deale they in ? and how ? of God 
they have not their authoritie, they hold it by the Canon lawe, and 
by the bishop. And some of them pay the bishop full well for 
it, they say. And so they say, that Chancellors offices are so 
gainfull, that some of them are in fee with their bishops for them, 
yea they say some bishops have payed for their bishoppricks other 
wayes, though not to the Queue, and that some of them have large 
fees going out of their bishopprickes, to their frends that holpe 
them to their preferments. These are not rightly called. And 
whereas there is a statute to avouche this calling and aucthoritie 
that the bishops usurpe, the statute may make it good by lawe 
to holde suche titles and dignities, but not before God. I have 
spoken of it before, and seeing ministers must be equall, and the 
order must be, that some must be governed by all, and not all by 
some in the church government, then the same argument is of 
force against Archdeacons, and all such highe prelates, which is 
against Lorde bishops, Lord bishops (I say) for the name bishop 
is not the name of a Lord, but of a painfull minister, and pastor, 
or teacher : and yet in deede in England every bishop is a Lorde. 
I knowe the common people would marvel, yea, and joly wise 
men too, if they heard their pastor say, I am your bishop, a 
bishoppe on God his name, when were you made Lorde, and so 
take him to be proude, for no man is a bishop heere, but he is 
also a Lord, which thing I say, because I doe not meane that the 
scripture alloweth not a bishop, but not a Lord bishop. A bishop 
or overseer, or pastor, and teacher in every congregation the 
scripture doth allowe, and him or them to be the principal of the 


consistorie of their congregation it doth allowe, but this highe ^ 
Prelacie it alloweth not, but forbiddeth it utterly. Nowe then, 
seeing they have no lawful! calling, howe can they deale in any 
causes lawfully ? but yet they doe deale, though not lawfully before 
God, and that in infinite causes. And the proctors and doctors 
of that law, say the studie of that lawe is infinite, because the causes 
are infinite, one I trow engendering another, and so surely are the 
delayes and fees of those courtes infinite. They have to examine 
all transgressions againste the boke of common prayer, the 
injunctions, the advertisements, the canons, the metropoliticall 
articles, the bishops articles of the diocesse, all the spirituall causes 
(as they call them) of the whole diocesse, or every Archdeacon of 
his circuite, and the Archbishop of his province, and the Arches 
of the whole realme, and for certaine causes the prerogative court 
of my Lord his grace of Canterburie, is over the realme also. 
Also of spirituall, yea and many carnall causes also, and that so 
handled, that it woulde greeve a chaste eare, to heare the bawdie 
pleading of many proctors and doctors in those courtes, and the 
sumners, yea, and the registers themselves, master Archdeacon, 
and master Chauncellor, are even faine to laughe it oute many 
times, when they can keepe their countenance no longer. An 
unchast kinde of pleading of unchast maters. They have much Unchaste 
adoe in marriage matters : when folke maye not marrie : what pi^^d'^g- 
degrees may not marrie, and much more adoe about divorcements, 
then either God or equitie would, restraining bothe parties from 
marriage, as long as they both are alive togither. Besides they 
have the triall of titles to benefices, and trial of tithes, & trial of 
testaments, and by their high commission they may do many moe 
things, and use other than spirituall coertion (as they call it) they 
may do what they will, saving life (I thinke) beat, prison, punish 
by the purse, banishe, & I wot not what? All persons, vicares 
and curates, all church wardens, all side men, sworne men, and 
many forsworne, and all parishes are at their commaundement. 
They may commaund al Maires, Bailiffes, Constables, and such a large 
like officers. All prisons are open to them, all jailors obay them, scope, 
receive their prisoners, and hamper them, as they enjoine them. 
They have good causes and bad brought before them, and punish 
both sometimes, but the worst seldomest & least, and the best 
oftenest and moste. Many of their causes, & much of their dealings 
are declared in the former treatises, therefore I wil be but brefe. 


tion house. 

Clarices of 
the parlia- 


And thus I say, that neither they, nor any order we have in 
England this day doth, or can do that, which only God his order 
can do, and was appointed to do. Neither their provincials, nor 
the whole course of their canon lawe, nor their articles, nor com- 
missions, can rightly order Christes church, nor any statute availeth 
thereunto, but only that lawe, which bindeth the whole land to 
God his orders for the governing of his church. And therfore 
to make lawes it availeth not, save mere civil, as in this case (which 
they count spiritual) for the provision of the ministery, & a law 
to stablish a right reformation drawn out of the scriptures. I would 
leave to speake any further of their convocation house, bicause the 
force of it dependeth upon the other houses of parliament, and my 
lords the bishops pleasures, for nothing they doe but for a fashion, 
untill they come to the subsidie, and they have had prety devises 
to stop their doing, they have had an order ere now to speake 
nothing but latin, which was the way for many to tell but short 
tales, for fear of shame. But yet among abuses of these clergye 
men, this is a great one, the whole house is a great abuse, but the 
polling of their cleargye for their clarkes fees, and their disorderous 
chusing of their clarkes may be numbred among the rest of their 
enormities, following none other order, but for the face of 
a thing, saving only my Lord bishops pleasure, or else he 
will know why, and yet it shalbe as he wil, when al is done, 
for either his Archdeacon shal have one roume to beare his 
charges withall, which otherwise must be there Ex officio, 
& so beare his owne charges, or some other of his frends shall 
have that roume, & his Chancellor shall have the other to 
pleasure him with, not for any pleasure commonly that the 
Chancellor can do in this house, who can scarse say (as they say) 
shue to a goose, and if they had neede of a devines answer of him, 
being most commonly a dodging Canonist, & sometime a Doctor. 
But when he is best, best is to bad. Thus I say, for this matter 
the bishop dealeth, or to bestowe it upon his chapleine, which shall 
waite at the stirrop, or at the bridle, to buy him a new gowne, or 
somewhat with, but as unfit for the house as the former commonly, 
but the bishop will have the apointing of bothe roumes. O the 
tyrannie that they use many, many wayes. I have thus brefely as 
I could, and handling matters as I ought, passed through many 
abuses in the ministery, and government of the church of Christ in 
England, and I have according to my pore talent declared, what 


shoulde be the state of a well ordered and reformed church. How 
many sortes of ministers, how they shuld be called to the function, 
what their office is, what order should be amongst them, what 
metings & conferences there should be for the continuing of true 
religion, and for them to increase in knowledge by. And in like 
sorte I have waded in declaring what officers there should be in the 
government, what stroke they may beare, so it be by the congrega- 
tion, what a consistorie is, what excommunication is, what provision 
there shuld be made for the pore, what the deacons office is, and of 
al other orders of the consistorie, which it pleased God that I had in 
minde, and thought most profitable to utter. It remaineth for me 
now to returne againe to the state. To the Queenes most excellent 
majestie, the honourable Counsellers, all the Nobilitie, & all the 
worshipfull Commons of this realme. And I humbly beseeche her Appeale. 
Majestie in principall, to vouchsafe the hearing of us, and like as 
we make our appeale from the L bishops to be uprighdy heard, 
what may be said of our partes further, and more throughly in this 
matter of Gods, by divers of no small learning and judgement, & 
integretie of life, so it will please her majestie, and you all, herein to 
accept our appeale, that not only we may not thus be oppressed, & Urgent 
wrung as we are, against all equitie and conscience, but also that <^^'^^^^- 
God his cause should not be so troden under foote, the benefite of 
his churche so little regarded, suche daily contentions raised up, and 
not pacified, such greeving of godly mennes consciences, & they not 
releeved. In so quiet a raigne of our soveraigne, that Papists for 
pitie are not much disquieted, and yet there should be a persecution 
of pore christians, and the professors of the gospel suffered not 
farre unlike to the sixe articles which crafty heades devised, and The sixe 
brought the king her noble father unto, as they wold do her ^^^ ^^' 
majestie now. That we should have God his cause by us truely 
and faithfully propounded, & by others wickedly oppugned, and 
withstode, & yet it may not by us againe be maintained without 
great peril. We beseeche you to pitie this case, and to provide for 
it. It is the case already of manye a thousand in this land, yea it 
is the case of as many as seeke the Lord aright, & desire to have 
his owne orders restored. Great troubles will come of it, if it be 
not provided for, even the same God that hath stirred me, a man 
unknowne to speake, thoughe those poore men which are locked up 
in Newgate, neither do, nor can be suffred to speake, wil daily stir 
up mo as yet unknown, though I wer knowne & an hundred mo, 



and the 
lawes we 
flie to. 

wel able to write and speake in the matter. Except you will 
professe to persecute us (which we hope her majestie of her wonted 
rare clemencie will not suffer though no doubt she shalbe by many 
importunately solicited, and in manner forced) our cause unheard, 
we do require and humbly beseche you, if by these bokes you be 
not resolved what to do, yet to provide for our safetie, & give us the 
hearing. They would beare men in hand that we despise authoritie, 
and contemne lawes, but they shamefully slaunder us to you, that 
The magis- SO say. For it is her majesties authoritie we flye to, as the supreme 
governour in all causes, & over all persones within her dominions 
appointed by God, and we flie to the lawes of this realme, the bonds 
of all peace & good orders in this land. And we beseche her 
majestie to have the hearing of this matter of Gods, and to take the 
defence of it upon her. And to fortifie it by law, that it may be 
received by common order throughout her dominions. For though 
the orders be, & ought to be drawne out of the booke of God, yet it 
is hir majestie that by hir princely authoritie shuld see every of these 
things put in practise, and punish those that neglect them, making 
lawes therfore, for the churche maye keepe these orders, but never 
in peace, except the comfortable and blessed assistance of the states 
& governors linke in to see them accepted in their countreys, and 
used. For otherwise the churche may and must keepe God his 
orders, but alwayes in troubles and persecution, which is like to 
light upon us, except a reformation of Religion, or a direct Proviso 
for us be made, for surely onely this is God his order, & ought to 
be used in his church, so that in conscience we are forced to 
speake for it, and to use it, & in conscience, & in the reverence of 
God, we are forced to speake as we doe of that reformation, which 
we now use, not so much for oughte else, as to set out the 
deformities thereof, that we might thinke upon the amending of 
them. It is shewed in the former treatises, how we thinke of the 
time and the persons, when, and by whome it was first made and 
aucthorised : yea & we know, that hetherunto the state that now is, 
hath not bene sufficiendy instructed in any better than they use, 
wherfore we lay the fault where the fault is, upon the bishops, & 
that sort who are so soft set, & fat fed, that they think they cannot 
better themselves by god his orders, not for worldly ease & pompe, 
and therefore they neither have dealt, nor will deale themselves, to 
chaunge the course, nor for ought I see, wil suffer any other to 
deale, but their authoritie & frendes shall faile them, but they will 


oppresse them. They pretend much that her majestic is sore bent 
against us, and that it is not so much their doing : if that were so, 
then should they themselves deale for us to her majestic, and cease 
that course they have gon. But we know because it most toucheth 
them, they must hate us. Wherefore we beseeche your godly 
wisdomes to have consideration of the matter, and not to leave us 
in their daunger, nor in danger of such justices & other, which be Quarellous 
glad to have a quarell to us for oure conscience, which can finde 
none in oure lives, enditing us, fineing us, etc. Now it is thus 
propounded unto you, if it seeme strange & harde to you (as no 
dout to them that arc not acquainted with the mater it wil do, 
bicause they are better acquainted with another course, we beseche 
you to suffer, & to procure it to be further discussed by free 
conference among the learned men in this realme. There are 
many well able to doe it, & wil be ready to doe it, if they were called 
upon, & so shall you have sufficient light. There be that say, It 
wil be troublous to precede in these things by publique authoritie, Certeinc 
& that it cannot be done. I wold desire them that say so, to answered! 
remember how troublous it is, and wil be the while, to many good 
consciences, & how that God cannot but be highly displeased in the 
meane time, & how that he cannot but revenge this trouble, that is 
raised against pore men his faithfull servaunts. There are that say 
this order cannot be throughout a realme, we cannot erect a con- 
sistorie in every towne, we cannot finde in every town faithfull men, 
& some parish hathe small choise of any kinde of men. Surely 
there would be somewhat thought of the uniting of small parishes 
in one. But yet there is no parish so small, but if it have nede 
of Christ, and to be saved, then it have nede of Christes orders. 
And there is no subject (though in deede it be a raw time for to 
finde in moste parishes a competent number of faithfull men to 
deale, or to have skil to deale in these matters, there is no subject 
I say, but if (making the best choise) he wer chosen as it is directed 
afore, and a great penaltie upon him to deale in it faithfully, but he 
could not chuse but deale in it, & that trustely & wel, so that withall 
there wer drawne certaine general orders, to direct him or them how 
to deale, & an honest learned pastor placed over every flocke. But 
some say it wil be hard to finde a preacher such a one as I spake 
of before for every parish to furnish the realme any thing like. To 
this I say, use those you have. First place in manner as afore, all 
your bishops in benefices, that be of a sound religion, and you 

K 2 


should be 


& induc- 
tions now 
used must 

shall furnish so many benefices as they be in nombre, for they have 
none. Yet they say, some of them have some benefices, as I saide 
before to amende their livings withall. Besides, use all you have 
abrode which be fit for it, and in the universities. And let such 
exercises be taken up, as I have spoken of, and let the towardliest 
of those that already have bene in benefices, if they wil be content 
to goe to their bokes, & afterward be employed uppon the ministerie, 
let them be sent to the universities, or such like places, and be 
provided for, by the colledges, that they may procede in learning. 
And you know not the store that God will raise you in short time, 
if you go about this godly purpose throughly. Take order that 
those faithfuU ministers which you have, may be placed in the 
greatest congregations. And for the sacraments, let those parishes, 
that are unprovided, repair to the parishes next adjoining that are 
provided of pastors, that they may use the sacraments as they ought, 
not without the preaching of the word, so that they be content to 
be examined & allowed, as in that churche wherto they shall resort, 
they shall finde it ordered. And in the meane while, til preachers 
increase to furnish the places unfurnished, if upon conference 
among the learned, it be thought meete, let the places unfurnished 
be appointed some discrete man, or to make some entier prayer, 
publiquely with them for all the churche, this realme, oure 
soveraigne, the state, and the particular occasions of that congre- 
gation, for suche prayer shoulde be made. Her majestic, and other 
that have had the gift of benefices, are to be desired to depart with 
it, that in manner as afore, the choise of the minister may be free, 
without al corruption, the minister being soughte and received for 
his fitnesse only. For the contrary cannot be continued without 
great tyrannic exercised over the Churche of God, and many 
corruptions necessarily incident therupon. Thus will I conclude, 
desiring them that thinke I have bene too round with the bishops, 
and that sort, to remember howe rounde they are with us, and how 
cruel, and againe how just my speach is, and further how it 
concerneth them not, any longer then they kepe this trade, no 
more then the upbraiding of popishe priestes, which toucheth not 
those which have renounced it. and I desire those that amongste 
themselves have a right remorse of God his glory, and the churches 
good, to give over, that we may brotherly joine together, and be 
holpen by the good giftes which God hath geven them. And we 
shal praise God for them with all our heartes. And oure admonitions, 


oure God knoweth, hathe no worse meaning. And I beseeche him 

so to blesse our labour, and those that deale in this his cause, that 

though our sinnes deserve no increase, yet for his Christes sake 

pardoning us, we maye every day be more and more lightned in 

godlye judgement, and stirred to embrace godlinesse, that as we 

professe to be his churche, we may keepe him our loving God and 

father, and be kept by him to be his obedient servauntes and 

sonnes, here to serve him, & after to inherite with him, that crowne 

purchased and promised unto us of his owne great unspeake- 

able mercies in Christ his sonne our deare savioure, ever to 

praise and magnifie him in that eternall blessednesse and glory, 

being God moste highe and unsearchable in his wisedome and 

judgements. To whom be all praise, power, and dominion 

ascribed & yeelded as 

is right, and due 

nowe, and 

for ever. 

So be it. 

Galath. vi. 7. 

Be not deceived : God is not mocked : for whatsoever a man 

soweth, that shall he also reape. 









Containing a confirmation of the sayde 
booke in shorte notes. 

ESAY V, 20. 

Woe be unto them that speake good of evill, and evill of good, which put 
darknesse for light, and light for darknesse, that putte bitter for sweete, and 
sweete for sower. 

The Printer to the Reader. 

This worke is finished thankes be to God, 
And he only wil keepe us from the searchers rod. 
And though master Day and Toy watch & warde. 
We hope the living God is our savegarde. 

Let them seeke, loke, and doe now what they can. 
It is but inventions, and pollicies of man. 
But you wil marvel where it was finished (ended). 
And you shal know (perchance) when domes day is. 

Imprinted we know where, and whan, 
Judge you the place and you can. 

J. T. J. S. 


If men be dumbe, sure stones shall speake, 
God wil his truthe prevaile, 
Let men resist, it forceth not, 
It standes when they shall quaile. 

When it of men is most opprest, 
Then God doth set in foote, 
You Prelates knowe how true this is, 
Thinke then what best may boote. 

You that can councell other men, 
Your selves be councelled, 
God will correct you knowe it well, 
Where it is well deserved. 

Yeelde reason why (none good you have) 
Gods churche, Gods orders lacke, 
Not God the cause, he them requires, 
Your Lordships keepe them backe, 

Thinke on the time reformde to be, 
Your selves which chiefly ought, 
You may else kicke, you wot who saith, 
Its hard availing nought. 

Repent, amende, shewe forth your love, 
You which afflicte your owne. 
And doe your best, whole Antichriste 
May quite be overthrowne. 

By helpe of God, by helpe of Prince, 
whome God long save and blesse, 
With prosperous life, and earnest zeale, 
At last heaven to possesse. 

^A VIEWE OF THE Churche, that the Authors of the 
late published Admonition would have planted within this 
realme of Englande, containing such Positions as they hold 
against the state of the said Churche, as it is nowe. 

A Reproufe of this VIEWE, made as it is thought, by 
the Byshops, and a Confirmation of the booke in short 

We are charged by the apostle to speake truth, every one to his 
neighbor, which precepte I take to extende to the whole life of 
man, as well in matters concerning the worship of God and his 
religion, as in them that concerne the common life and use of 
man. And to be faultie in it, as it is a thing worthy reprehension 
in all men, so especiallye in the ministers of God, and such as are, 
or ought to be by their calling, leaders and conductors of other. 
I speake not this to carpe, or maliciously to bite any man, but 
to warne them brotherly of their faulte, that they may amend which 
have erred, and committed a scape in this behalfe. Some when 
they sawe these Articles saide in this wise : As they are in all their 
doings shifters, so have they in the Collection of these Articles, 
shewed themselves to be no lesse untrue dealers, then their cause is 
vaine & naught: bothe for vouching things out of the Booke, 
which are not in the boke, and also in putting forthe most true 
propositions as paradoxes. — 

FoL 3. //. \. pa. 2. First they holde and affirme, that we 

in England, are not yet come to the outward face of a 

church agreeable to Gods word ^ — 

In this first Allegation there lacketh this word scarse, which is 

in both coppies, first and last, wherin if they had meant plainly 

and truely to have dealt with the world, they might have put it 

downe, as it is in the boke. Let men thinke of them as they list, 

but to make a lie in the beginning, is foule & shameful, 

2. lin. ull. They will have the ministers to be called, 
allowed, and placed by the people. — 
This Article is utterly falsified. For it is in the Admonition, the 

> W. iii 498. 


election was made by the Elders with the common consent of 
the whole church. And so if they condempne the making of 
ministers, what do they else, but open their mouthe against God, 
and against the truthe. Act. xiv. 23. 

3. Fol. 4. It. 7. pa. 13. They wil have none made 
minister, but the minister of some one certain parishe. 

A perilious erroure. Loke Paul ad Tit. i. 5. I thinke we have 
no Apostles made now a dayes, but pastors onely: but if you 
think the contrary, I pray you shew me, whether such as you 
make, be bounde in conscience to goe into Turcia Barbaria and 
such like places or no? or why rather they should be bound to 
England, more then to those places ? and take hede heere of a 
Popes reason. 

4. Itn. 9. They holde that a byshop at no hand, hath 
authoritie to ordaine ministers. 

No, not alone, but as part of the consistorie, and eldership and 

member of the church, as Act. i. And a byshop as ours are, 

that is Romish byshops, creatures of the Canon law by no meanes. 

6. lin. 17. They say for a byshop to say to the minister, 

Receive the holy ghoste, is blasphemous and ridiculous. 

Is this put downe as an error? in dede it is erroneous if the 

holy ghost proceede from them: but that let them consider of 

Calvin. Jo. xx. 22. 

6. lin. 28. They will have the ministers at their owne 
pleasure to preach without licence. 

This is also falsified, the boke hath it, if any be so wel disposed 
to preach in their owne charges, they may not without my Lordes 
licence. A shamefull corruption. Any reasonable man would 
have known by the second Article, that no man can be a preacher 
at his owne pleasure, but by the admission of the congregation, 
but as afore, so say we againe. A Romish bishop hath nought 
to do, to geve licence, and his is as good to preache by, as the 
Popes calfe was that Felton set up. 

7. lin. x'^.fol. 17. //. d. pa. i. They will have the ministers 
discerned from others by no kind of apparell, and the apparell 
appointed, they terme antichristian, & the apparell appointed 
by the Prince, disobedience against the Prince. 

This also is falsified, they speake of the simple kinde of setting 
forthe sacrament of Christe, and afterward in the purer churches 
& compare it with the pelfe of beautifying it (as they woulde have 


it seeme) only found out and appointed by popes from Paganes : 
The wordes are these "they ministred the sacramentes plainly, 
we pompously, with singing, piping, surplesse, and coape wearing," 
so I finde it in Fol. 4. pa. 2. lin. 15. Whether the apparell be 
Antichristian or no, it is no time here to debate, but lette them 
shew from whence they had it ? and let them not be ashamed to 
professe his name, whose cognisance they weare. Either let them 
speake as they are apparelled, or lette them apparell themselves as 
they speake. But I cry them mercy, they do so now, and never 
so plainly, I am sure they have put forth here articles, which they 
shall never be able to shewe any ground for, unlesse they take it 
from the Pope. And this I say to al good Christians, let them 
take hede that they have not the supremacie of the Pope main- 
tained heere, whilest a fewe white coates stande for hundred 
poundes, I say not thousandes. For this viewe which they put forthe, 
drawing so many articles out of that small boke, absurde as they 
seeme to put them forthe, containeth in it, so many false articles cleane 
against the truthe and the booke, as are by them put downe. 

8. Fo. 4. li. I. pa. 2. They will have all Archbyshops, 
bishops archdeacons, chauncellors, and all other ecclesiasticall 
officers together with their titles, jurisdictions, courtes, and 
livings cleane taken away, and with speede removed. 

Falsified in part. They have slily left out that, that they could 
not, but be ashamed of, if they had any shame, as Lords grace, 
Justice of peace & Quorum, which have no ground nor warrant 
in Gods boke. But I doubt not when they come to answere the 
boke, or put downe the confirmation of their part to confute these 
absurdities, we shall see good stufFe. 

9. lin. 9. They will not have the ministers tied (as they 
terme it) to any fourme of prayers invented by man, but as the 
spirite moveth them, so to make their prayers, and therefore as 
they will be bound to no prescript order of prayers, so will they 
have the boke of common prayer cleane taken away. Utterly 

There is no such thing ment, that there shuld be none at al, 
but that this of theirs ought not to be tollerated. A fourme of 
prayers they deny not. Nay we do use one in oure congregations, 
and the same that all reformed churches do, but their patched 
Portuise is not to be allowed, the causes can not be denied, there 
are in it many vile things. 


10. Fo. 4, h'n. ult. They will have al advowsons, patronages, 
impropriations, and bishops authoritie, and ordaining of the 
ministers to be removed. 

A sore matter & great error. Is it to be thought that any 
reasonable man would stande for these, as though it were an 
absurditie to say they ought to be taken away, why not a Cardinall 
at Canterburye, as well as an advowsonage in any place. As for 
the bishops making of ministers, otherwise then before, when they 
can shewe they maye, we will yeelde this is absurde. 

11. Fol. ^.li. 1 5. 1 6. 3 1. 1 7. They will have no homelies red 
in the Churche, nor articles, nor injunctions set out nor used, 
nor in no wise Sacraments ministred in any house, nor in no 
wise the word red, but preached only. 

A hainous error. Ite predicate. Math. 28. goe and preach. 
Et quotiescunque conveneritis alius alium expectate. i Cor. u. 
So oft as ye come together, tarie one for another. Private houses 
are not made for sacramentes to be ministred in, when there is an 
open congregation. They have no cause to think of our most 
gracious Queene so wickedly, as that they shuld be driven to 
maintaine that absurd and disorderous order. Thankes be to God, 
all church dores are open, and god long preserve her majestic 
among us, by whose meanes they are open. Why shuld that be 
tollerated, which is a confirming of their popish housling ? and the 
private midwives baptising ? 

12. They will not have the Epistle and Gospell red, and 
whatsoever is saide before, they utterly mislike, and call it a 
Popes entraunce. 

Where else had ye it? and such patching was never taken but 
from Rome, shew authority if they can. 

13. pa. 2. U. 17. 10. They cannot abide to have the Crede 
red at the Communion. 

No, not as a peece of your masse, yet we use it in all our 
churches in every sermon, it is not done for the contempt of the 
Crede I would ye knew it. 

14. Pa. X. lin. 20. They wil have the Communion received 
at the table sitting, without further reverence, kneeling they say, 
is utterly unlawful. 

Christ used it sitting. Antichrist kneling, whether is better to 
have Moises or a Calfe? 


15. lift. 14. They mislike of these woordes, the bodie of 
our Lord Jesus Christe, etc. 

Why content you not your selves with Christes words and the 
Apostles ? Either folish Paule and wise you, or folish you, and wise 
the Apostles. 

16. lin. 1 5. They mislike of Gloria in excelsis. 

Not every thing that is good, is to be patched into the Com- 
munion, because that christians ought not to make quidlibet ex 
quolibet of a rede a rammes home. 

17. lin. 12. They will have no other words, nor circumstance 
made, then Christe used. 

17. lin. 12. Falsified, the words are, we sinfully mixed with 
mannes inventions. Speake truthe if thou can, and shame the 

18. Fol. 6. pa. I. lin. 12. They will have no Papiste, neither 
with his will, nor constrained to receive the Communion. 

Ah Paule what mentest thou. Probet seipsum homo, i Cor. 
II. Let a man examine himselfe. I tell you, the sacramentes 
are too much abused by men willingly. Adde not more sinnes 
to cause the Lords wrathe to be more hotte against us. 

19. line. 16. They wil have no Godfathers nor Godmothers. 
Utterly falsified. 

20. Fol. 6. lin. S.pag. 1. They will have all ministers equall. 
Christe in deede erred in this, therefore we recant, inter vos 

autem non sic. It shall not be so among you. Luke 22. 

21. lin. 10. They mislike all collectors for the pore. And 
would have Deacons placed, whose office it is. Act. 6. Rom. 12. 

22. Fol. 8. in fine. They say that there may be yet a more 
parfect forme & order of a church drawne, and that this is but 
an entraunce to a further matter, promising that they wil yet go 
further therein. 

Falsified. Sed audin ? verbum unum caue de pleniore Christe, 
ne ad morbum hoc etiam. Yet see howe these men are troubled, 
even as legio was to heare of Christes comming. It greveth them to 
heare that Christ shuld be ful amongst us, and not by patches and 

Out of the seconde treatise called " a viewe of popishe abuses 
remaining." Note three Articles omitted. And why these more 
then the rest? if it be for that you are ashamed of your un- 
godly dealing, with your fellow brethren, whome you and the rest 


of the high Commissioners at Lambeth put from their livings and 
ministerie for refusing to subscribe to your traditions it is well : 
if it be for that you see them so sufficiently confuted, as you 
have nothing to reply, you are to be borne withall in hope of 

1. Fol. lo.pag. I. Itn. 33. Reading of service orhomelies in 
the Churche they say, is as evill as playing on a stage, and 
worse too. 

Falsified, and yet marke I pray you their reason and comparison, 
not for the thing it selfe, but for the persons them selves. For 
the players can saye their partes without booke, these for the 
moste parte can but read theirs, and that scarse too. 

2. Fol. 12. pa. 2. lin. 10. Touching mariage, they A mislike 
the wedding ring, they are angrie with B taking of it up, and 
laying of it downe. They will not have the Trinitie named 
therein. They say we make the man to make an idol of his 
wife, because he saith, with this ring I the wed, with my body 
I thee worship. 

A. In deede they are pretie jugling castes, taken out of the 
Popes Masse booke, as the moste parte of all their trashe. Rub. 
manu trahendo. Tit. Benedictio sponsi & sponse. 

B. It is plaine abusing of the name of God, borowed from 
thence too. You might have found better reason to have con- 
dempned this for a superstitious thing, then a graye ammisse, 
for you have these wicked words put to it. Et proficiat illi ad 
eternam salutem. And that it may profite him to eternall salvation. 
Ca. Cretor. This were as good an occasion to cast it awaye, 
as Ezechias had to breake the serpent, and for your pretie using 
of it, let the Reader loke upon the Rub. Tunc as pergatur. 

3. lin. 3. Confirmation they misselike, and call it super- 
stitious, popishe, and peevishe. 

Farre over seene in so doing. It was a Sacrament, and may be 
still if it please you. For you sertefie the childe of Gods grace. 

A. 4. Fol. i"^. pa. I. lin. i. Touching buriall of the dead, 
they will have no prescript service for it. 

B. They will any man indifferently to burie the dead, and not 
to be tied to the minister. 

C. They misselike of this prayer there used, that " we with this 
our brother, etc ". 

D. They will have no sermons at burials, because they are put 


in the place of Trentals, not so much E as lying of the corps in 
the place of burial), the fetching to the Churche, the meeting of 
the minister, etc, they cavill at. 

A. What needeth it ? whye should the priest saye, meeting the 
corps, even juste at the churche stile (for so the Rubricke saith) 
"I am the resurrection and the life, etc", to whom speaketh he? 
to the living ? why then at the Churche stile, rather then in anye 
other place ? why at that time more than any other, if it be for 
the living ? If it be for the dead, O vile papistes, but thence it came, 
loke unto that stinking portuise. All that whole tracte was spoken, 
and is spoken in most places in the person of the dead. See the 
blindnesse and mischeefe of an adulterous nation. This for the 
church stile. See those popish apes, when he commeth to the 
grave, what then ? forsoth this must be said or sung. " Man that 
is borne of a woman, etc." O mourning joyfuU gospell spillers, 
when we be at the graves side, we be in the middest of life, when 
we be put in, we be in deathe. And I beseche you, where had 
you the prayer that followeth: where you shewe a patching of 
Antichristes inventions with the worde of God. Beside the great 
and vile abusing of the scripture, in using that for a dead man, 
which blessed Job spake in anguish of his heart, for the afflictions 
which he sustained whilest he was alive. To be short, if thou dost 
it for a peece of God's service, shewe thy warrant, especially seeing 
thou abusest the scripture to thy purpose. It is never red or 
founde either in the olde testament or the new, that God either 
appointed, or that there was used any service for, or at, and in the 
buriall of the deade. 

B. why? Because it is a peece of charitie, whiche concerneth 
every man, and not any part of the ministerie, that it should be 
bound & appropriate to them. Therefore we say, and that by the 
scripture, that it belongeth to them as to every private man, and 
not other wise. For who playde the priest, when Abraham buried 
his wife, and Jacob his ? what priest was it, that toke Stevens 
bodye, and Ananias and Saphira, and who preached at any of 
these burials ? 

C. If you looke wel uppon your olde portuise, and conferre 
it with yours now, you can not well excuse it from being a prayer 
for the deade. 

D. we make not that a reason, but we shewe you howe they 
came in, and howe they came to have that place. And if you be 


not minded to take away that follie and abuse, yet I praye you 
take order for your Ravens, that will take no crackt Frenche 
crownes for their Trentall sermons, seeing you will have it so. 

E. To take his leave of the belles with three peales, according 
to my Lorde of Canterburies laste pervertisements. 

5. Fol. I'^.pa. 2. lin. i. They finde fault with saying the 
Psalme, I lifted up mine eyes, etc. 

Especially in summer for sonne burning, and if she come late 
at night, from being a moone calfe, for she must be whoded. And 
I beseche you why should the prayer that is for the delivery of the 
churche, or any member thereof from the tirannie of the ennemie 
of God, be used in a thankes geving of a woman after childebirth. 
There is not one word in it for a thanks geving, but the whole 
Psalme runneth uppon the miseries that the poore captives are in, 
and yet they intitle their service a thankes giving, & will needes 
have this Psalme used to that purpose. Nowe tell me, if this be not 
abusing of scripture. 

6. lin. 4. They misselike that we pray in the Letanie, that 
all men may be saved. 

Because we knowe that Caine, Judas, and all the inventers of 
this geare, the Popes are the children of perdition. 

7. lin. 5. They misselike that we pray to be delivered from 
thundrings and lightnings, bicause when we so pray, there is oft 
times no danger neare. 

Put in too, from sparrowe blasting. 

8. Fol. 1%. pa. 2. lin. 7. They finde fault with singing of 
Benedictus, Nunc dimittis, Magnificat, etc., in the common 
prayer, calling it, the prophaning of the scriptures. 

In dede we have a new Christ in some mannes belly, and some 
John Baptist to go before him, and Simeons good store, that will 
gladly die so sone as he is borne, but I thinke there be no pope 

9. lin. 13. In all our order of service, they say, there is no 
edifying but confusion, they saye the interchaungeable saying of 
Psalmes, is tossing of tennice balles. 

Experience of these 1 4 yeares, proveth what edefying hath come 
by it, and the Psalmes would not be handled in greasie alehouse 
chaunters mouthes. 

10. Fol. \\.pa. II. lin. 18. The regiment of the Church, 
they call Antichristian and develish, and say they may as safely 


subscribe to allowe the dominion of the pope over us, as to 
subscribe to it. 

No, the Canon lawe is good scripture, and the pope Antichrist, 
a mete man to set an order in Christes house. And why not 
antichristian ? they say truely, & they have great reason so to say, 
for that you have no scripture to prove the contrary, for you stand 
only upon the lawes of man, whome you have caused for your 
behofe to confirme the lawes of Antichrist therin. But is it 
therfore not Antichristian, because that civill lawes of earthly princes, 
have confirmed the canon law, & take it now as their owne ? As 
who shuld say, the translating of a lawe from one realme to an 
other, and from one prince to another, letteth or causeth that the 
law may not, & is not rightly to be said to be his, who first invented 
it ? Because that princes have taken this into their lawes, that 
whosoever committeth wilfull murther, shall die the death, is it not 
therfore Gods law? Because the lawes of the Grekes were 
translated into the Romaine Empire, therefore were they not the 
lawes of the Grecians ? because the lawes of Justinian be come nowe 
to be practised in Fraunce, Germanic & other places, therefore are 
they not Justinians lawes ? But be it that because Papirius hath 
gathered all the lawes together, the whole be called Jus Papirianum, 
yet are the lawes theirs, & so shalbe called whose they were, if in 
this it be so, why should the Canon lawe lose his name, to be called 
the Popes law ? because that princes have confirmed it ? As who 
should say, the chaunging of the name altereth either the nature of 
the law, or else of other thing whatsoever ? It is not said or thought, 
that because Adrianus or Bonifacius, or whosoever was called Pope 
of Rome, therefore whatsoever lawe he made was naught, & to be 
rejected ? but because he, as a pope, that is as antichrist made it, 
having no ground in Gods word, but rather the contrary, therfore 
it is said to be popishe, and therfore develish, whose name so ever 
it put upon it. 

But there is a further matter in it. How may any prince geve 
one man authoritie to be bishop over a province or a diocesse, 
more than the Emperor maye geve it to any priest, to be over all 
Christendome, either by him selfe, or by the consent of other 
princes. For so some write that his supremacie came by the 
donation of Constantine, and see then how farre this differeth from 
Antichrist. From Antichrist I saye, in taking that, which they 
know, cannot be so given, and they condempne the taking of it in 



the bishop of Rome, for therfore they call him Antichriste. They 
have said and we say, that "jure divino," by the lawe of God, he 
bathe no more authoritie and higher place, then any other bishop, 
& they say true. And because he taketh it upon him "jure humano," 
they call him Antichriste. It can not be then, but that they shewe 
themselves herein to folowe the trace of Antichriste, especially seeing 
they have it jure humano, and that jure pontificio. 

11. pag. 2. Iht. 14. They will have every minister to have full 
jurisdiction in his owne parishe. 

It were a tyrannic if he had it alone, I say in a parishe, but 
forsoth not so in a diocesse. 

12. Itn. 28. Theyholde that the ministers at this day enter 
not in by Christe, but by a popishe and unlawfuU vocation. 

Absurde, for Antichrist is Christe, and the Canon law scripture. 
It wil be hard for you to shew the contrary. 

13. Im. 28. They holde it is unlawfull for one man to preach 
in another mannes Church, or any man to preache out of his 
owne Churche. 

Tanquam ex officio, ut cordigeri & Jacobitae. It is true he 
oughte not as of his office and duetie, as the Cordigers and 
Jacobites, and when it may be shewed out of the scriptures, we will 
as you say. 

14. Fol. 18. pa. I. Im. 13. They will have all cathedrall 
churches pulde downe with Deaneries and Prebendaries, etc, 
cleane taken away, and call them dennes of loitering lubbers. 

A daungerous matter if men stoode under the walles, and seeing 
the statute of vagabondes which is so straight. And I praye you 
what are they elsse but loitering lubbers ? Shewe what profite 
commeth by them to the Church of Christ, and how are they 
occupied for the place of clearkes, whiche they wrongfully keepe. 

The state of the church at this day, they call the raigne of 

It is spoken of the Romishe jurisdiction before mentioned. They 
have just cause to say so, for what is it else ? No ground can be given 
out of gods word for any of those positions whiche they putte downe 
heere, as reprehending and reproving the booke. If the adversaries of 
the booke thincke to strive with the weapons of Antichriste againste 
them, we have to beholde the conflict with patience, for we shal 
see their faule to their shame and smarte. If it were a thing to 
be toUerated in the service of God, and that more is, in the whole 


government of his house, to borrowe advise of the ennemies of 
God, whye w^as he so precise with his people of Israeli by Moises 
his servaunt, in appointing his service, and everye iote pertaining 
to the priesthode and temple, that he would not have the least rag 
that mighte be from the Paganes his ennemies ? was it not because 
he wold not have that to be any meanes or occasion of familiaritie 
with them, or any likenesse, whereby they might be moved to 
folowe them ? Comunitie of manners, and likenesse of conversa- 
tion in matters of religion especially, is a greate cause of further 
acquaintance and familiaritie. Therfore that they shuld not 
seeme to allowe, as from him and by his meanes their manner of 
doings, and that should not be done to him, that was done to 
straunge Gods, he invented and appointed an order aparte, 
wherby he wold be worshipped. The same trace did Christ 
followe. We neither read nor finde, that he borrowed ought of the 
Gentiles, and that more is, because no doubte he would have us 
leave of all Jewishe ceremonies, he commended not his owne, and 
his fathers former lawes, to his Apostles to be observed. And 
why then should we take ought from his ennemie, the childe of 
perdition and sinne, the Antichriste of Rome, who hathe bene and 
is, the greatest waster of his church. Nay, they should rather 
take that way, wherby it might be hardly heard amongst owre 
posterity, what manner of beast that was. They shuld take away 
bothe from the eyes and eares of all men (as well as from their 
heartes) all signes and tokens, wherby that childe of sinne, mighte 
come into remembraunce. O that we must still holde up the 
head of that beast, which is worthely by Gods spirite and judge- 
ment cast downe into hell. O that brethren, our brethren I say, 
which have already bene persecuted, and are like againe to be 
persecuted (if God doe not in mercy loke upon his poore afflicted 
Church) shuld stand so stoutly with their brethren, in whome they 
can finde no reproofe, but the hatred of Antichriste, in this over- 
flowing of the bloude of our brethren in Fraunce, which is yet 
greene before our eyes, and yet lieth uppon the face of the streates 
and fieldes of that curssed land, shoulde stande I say so stoutly 
for that, wherfore all those their brethren, have bene so cruelly 
and againste all godlinesse and nature murthered, and which al 
their other brethren else where, have justly condempned and caste 
away, and the godly here grone with the burden of it. May it 
please thee O Lord, to open their eyes, that they seeking thy glory, 

L 2 


may see to the safetie of this pore Churche, yet standing as a 
little braunche, but looking daily by thy just judgement, for our not 
upright walking to be spoiled of those bloud thirsty and deceitfull 
men. Geve them heartes O Lord, that they may forsee the day 
of their destruction, nay oure destruction, Good Lorde plucke of 
the vaile of their understanding, that they be not taken in their 
sin, and we with them bee cutte of in thy displeasure. Truthe 
it is Lord, that we have wel deserved the contrary, and our 
sinnes we confess, have ben some occasion of the cutting of of 
oure brethren, yet for thy name sake be merciful! unto us, that 
the ennemie and bloude thirstie man may not triumph and saye, 
where is nowe their God. Faultes escaped. 

Pje. lin. 4. not, to much, pag. 63. lin. 25. or, to much, pag. 41. 
lin. 29. after Ashwedeniday service should followe good Fridayes 
service. And in this other Treatise (in some bookes) pa. 13. lin. 
14. read it is not said, for it is said, pag. 14. lin. 4. so is, for so in, 
the cause of which faultes (good Christian reader) and some other 
things not published, which we meant and minde to publishe God 
willing, is the importunate search of Day the Printer, and Toy 
the Bokebinder, assisted with a pursivaunt, and some other officers 
at the appointment of the bishops, wherin they are very earnest 
of both sides, the one sorte belike, hath Demetrius the silver 
Smithes disease, they wold be loth to lose their owne profit, for 
the churches profit, and the other side would be lothe we had 
such a meane to publishe anything agains them or their answer. 
But ther is 12 hours in the day. 


I. The Bill concerning Rites and Ceremonies, 1572. 

The earlier and the later form compared from 3". P, Dom. Ixxxvi. 45, 46, and 48. 

Wheare in the firste yeare of your maiestes most happie 
raigne and government over us your highness most humble and 
obedient subiects which we beseche theternall god in continuall 
blessed success longe to preserve and contyneue A certayne book 
of ordre of uniformytie of common prayer and minystracion of the 
sacramente (for the renewyng of the buildyng of the house of god 
the Churche of Christe) throughe his grace and unspeakable mercy, 
and youre graces godlie zeale towarde the advancement of his glorie, 
was by authorytie^ of parliament established prescribed and or- 
deyned to be by all youre graces subiectes fully and directly obeyd 
observed and performed, to all purposes, constructiones, and intents 
under the paynes and penalties therin comprised^ [in which thoughe 
there be a soundnes in substantiall poynts of doctrine, yet by reason 
of the late backslidynge of the people from true religion to super- 
sticion divers orders of rites, Ceremonies and observacions were 
therein permytted in respecte of the greate weakness of the people 
then blynded with supersticion. Sythe it hathe nowe ' pleased the 
almyghte god — Throughe this long contynuance of the exercise of 
preachyng of the Gospell under youre highness authoritie, to 
directe the course therof to suche a prosperouse end, as many 
Congregationes within this your highness realme, are growen to 
desire of atteynyng to some further forme than in that book is 
prescribed, And consideryng that god in his manyfold blessynge 
towarde us hath raysed up a grate nomber of lerned pastors and 
zealouse minysters withyn this youre maiestys domynions, who in 
discharge of theire consciences have therfore eftsones according 
to that talent and measure of knowledge which god hathe geven 
them, endeavoured and enterprised with all humilitie and quyett 
manner (with favorable permyssion of some godlie Bishopes and 
Ordinaries) to forther the spreadynge of his spirituall buyldynge, by 
puttyng in some godlie exercises for the better instruction and 
edifyinge of theire congregaciones, and therfore have omytted the 

^ Second bill \!cLZ.vAiox\'C\t. ' Second bill omits. 

'' This word is a correction of some earlier word erased with a knife. 


precise rule and strayt observacion of the forme and order pre- 
scribed in that booke, with some parte of rites and ceremonyes 
therin apoynted, and have conformed themselves more neerlie to 
the Imitacyon of thauncyent apostolicall churche and the best 
reformed churches in Europe, as well in the forme of comon 
prayer mynistracion of the sacraments, examinacion of the com- 
munycants, catechisyng of the youth and instruccion of the older 
with divers other profitable exercises to the great encrease of treu 
knoledge, furtherance of gods glorye and extinguishynge of super- 
sticion and the advancynge of true religion], And forasmuche as 
ther ben a nomber of maliciouse adversaries of the trueth whiche 
^ Qdo seeke by all mens to hinder and disturbe theise godlie pro- 
ceadyngs and for that purpose] do cover theire malice under 
pretence of conformytie and obedyence to the same prescribed 
forme in the said booke expressed and do rigorouslie require the 
precise observyng of every parte and parcell therof so that yf 
a godlie minister "^ [do varye from it and use any order more 
syncere and such as by the Judgement of all godlye lerned is more 
profitable to edifie, then that prescribed in the booke, or] do but 
upon any iuste occasion either omytt any thyng to be said or but 
reade one chapter for another. These men are redy to accuse 
and have accused and presented'' some of them* before your 
highness Justices of assises in theire circuyts and some others of 
them before certeyne other your highness Justices, and some 
others endited in generall cessions as wilfuU disobedient persones 
and contempners of your highness lawes and ordynances, by 
means wherof great disquyetnes is bred amonge your highness 
subiects, The course of the Gospell is greatly hyndred, manye 
godlie prechers ® restrayned from [theire ^] godlie exercises, to the 
great dishonor of God, grief of the godlye and triumphe of the 
enemye'' [ — and thoughe divers ^ godlie mynded prelates woolde be 
righte willyng to favoure and mayntayne the use of the same godlie 
exercises seyng that they tende verey muche to edificacion, yet for 
reverence of the said lawe and for feare of the rigoure of the same 
thei be diswaded or rather restrayned from so well doyng for the 
removyng of whiche forsaid Impediments and for the further 
advancyng of The True Religion of Christe wherby his name in us 
may be the more fully glorified and we throughe those godlie 
exercises the better instructed]. — 

Maye it therfore please youre moste excellent Maiestie of your 
graciouse accustomyd godly zeale towards the furtherance of the 
Gospel : That it may be Inacted by the assent of your Lords 
spirituall and temporall, and the commons in this presente Parlia- 

' Second bill omits. ' Second bill o?nits. ^ Second bill inserts as well. 

* Second bill inserts as other the hearers and occasyones thereof in a different 

' Second bill inserts and hearers in a different hand. * A word erased here. 

* Second bill omits. • ' Divers ' is crossed out. 


ment assembled that the^ same^ statute made in the said firste 
yere of your highness most happie raigne, and every branche, 
clause, and article therin conteyned concernyng [^ the prescribyng 
of the forme of common prayer and mynistracion of the sacraments 
with the penalties therein expressed for the violatynge and in- 
frynginge of the same ^3 "^^.y remayne and be in force against 
such persons onely as do* or shall use anie maner of^ papisticall 
service, rites or Ceremonyes by the same Acte abolished, or ° [do 
or shall use the same forme so prescribed more supersticiouslie 
than the same Acte doth authorise and allowe]. And furthermore 
that it may be Inacted that it shall and may be lawfull to and for 
all and every persone vicar and mynister beyng a preacher allowed 
and havyng the charge of any congregacion with the consent of 
'' the most part of Bishopps of this Realm to omytt and leave any 
parte of the same prescribed forme appoynted by and in the same 
booke of comon prayer in suche sorte, and at tymes, as to such 
personne, vicar, or minyster shalbe thoughte most necessarie and 
expedyent to preache the woord of God or to use any other godUe 
exercise, for the instruction of his Congregation, ^ [And further 
that yt may be lawfull ^ by like consent ^ for all and every suche 
persone, vicar and mynister to use any tyme or tymes hereafter 
any parte of the prayers, rites, or ceremonyes prescribed and 
apoynted by and in the same booke of common prayer, or other- 
wise ^ with Hke consent ® to use such forme of prayer and mynis- 
tracion of the woorde and sacraments, and other godlie exercises 
of religion as the righte godlie reformed Churches now do use in 
the ffrenche and Douche congregation, within the City of London 
or elswheare in the Quenes maiesties dominions and is extant in 
printe, any acte or acts^", Iniunction, advertisement or decree 
heretofore had or made to the contrarie notwithstandynge] ". 

^ Second bill inserts paynes penaltyes and forfetures conteyned or expressed 
in the m a differetit hand. 

* Second bill saide. 

'~^ Second bill has the violating and infringing of the prescribed forme of 
comon prayer and administracion of the sacraments enacted by your sayd estate 
and conteyned in the sayd book of comon prayer by the said estate established 
in a different hand. 

* Secojid bill itiserts shall do, saye, use, heare or procure. 

' Second bill inserts superstition or. * Second bill omits. 

'' For these words the original draft had the Bishoppe of that diocese. 
This is scratched out and the other substituted above. Secottd bill has the 

* Second hill ofnits. *~' These words are inserted. 
^^ Substituted for a longer word erased. 

" The first bill has on the back the names of M' Treasurer. Thomas Scott 
Attorney of the Duchy, Popham, Yelverton, Dannet, Dalton, Audeley, 
Nich. S' Leger, Randall Skynner, Pastor ; and the note Vacat q. nova. 
The secoftd bill has on the back Rites and Ceremonies (Nova) mercur. xxi' 
May 1572, The first reading. 


II. Mr. Speaker Bell to Burghley. 
Endorsed: 20th May 1572. Mr. Bell Speker of the Pari, to my L. 

To the ryhte honorable and his singuler good Lorde the Lorde of 
Burleye geve thies. 

My very good Lord I have receyved your L. letter the answer 
wherunto these shalbe to lett you understand that suche a byll was 
brought into the house the effect whereof was that every bisshop 
within his dyoces should have power to geve liberie to any authorised 
preacher to use the rights and serymonyes in the church within his 
dyoces differyng from the presyce rule prescribed and sett forth by 
the book of common service so as the same alteracions dyd nott 
differ from the order now allowed and sett forth in the french and 
dutch churches and being extant in prynt and that all the paynes 
conteined in the statute of primo regine anno for thauthorizyng of 
the same booke and should remayn in force against all othere and 
this byll being earnestly called uppon was this present day longe 
debated in which debate yt semed to me the greatest greff that was 
most generally allowed off was for that many preachers for readyng 
of a chapter at any tyme nott permytted for that tyme by the booke 
and for dyverse such lyke things wer indyted and grevosly vexed 
before the justices of thassises by such as eather sought that advan- 
tage for mal) ce in relygion then for any other respect and in thend 
the hole house gave ther consent that ther myght be a conference 
had for the devysing of som byll that should provide for this incon- 
venyence by such an ordynance as myght be generall for the 
preservation of unyformity generally and semed not to lyke of this 
byll and accordyngly dyverse ar appointed for this conference 
whereof Mr. Treasurer ys on so as I take yt this byll ys nott to take 
any effecte and this ys asmuch as I can enform your honor of, and 
touching the name of the preferrere thereof I shall wayte uppon 
your L. and show you asmuch as shall become me on that behalf 
and thus I humbly take my leave of your L. 

from the myddell temple this present 20th of may 1572 

by your L. to comaunde 
Robart Bell. 

III. Sandys to Burghley \ 

My honourable Lord. I had sent you the assertions inclosed 
or this but that I was desyrous first to have loked into Cartwright's 
boke and se what good stuff was to be found ther: but truth is as 
yet I could neuer com by that boke although it is currant amongst 
many. The absurdities and inconveniences are set down for the 
most part in their owne words. I will make a more perfite 

* Lansd. MS. xvii. 30. 


collection if your (sic) think it nedeful and wil let me know 
your pleasure therin. Theis men that are with M^ Mullyns write 
unto me this day for more libertie and better rowme to walke in : 
charging me that the Counsell hath geven me authorite to set them 
at libertie or at the least to be in ther owne houses. I shal pray your 
L that I may be releued in that behalf and disburdined. The 
whole blame is layde on me for ther Imprisonment. Thus I hum- 
bli take my leave commendinge your good L to the grace of god. 
At London this April ultimo 1573. Yours L to command 

Ed. London 

While I am writing this letter I receyue sondrie letters from 
noblemen in ther behalfes. Surely they wil make a diuision not 
only among the people but also amongst the Nobilite yea and 
I feare among men of highest calling and greatest authorite except 
spedy order be taken therein. M^ Mullyns wold be ridd of theym 
ther is such resort unto theym. I can place them no wheare 
ells except with some merchant of their faction. I shall humblie 
pray your L to let me knowe what is to be done herein. 

indorsed: To the right honorable my singular good Lord the 
Lord of Burghley Highe Treasurer of England. 

IV. Proclamation of June ii, 1573^ 

By the Queene. 

The Queenes Maiestie consydering that notwithstanding that by 
great and mature deliberation of the wysest of this Realme a godly 
and good order of publique prayer and administration of the 
Sacramentes hath ben set foorth and allowed by Parliament and 
commonly through the whole Realme in al the tyme of her 
Maiesties raigne receiued and used : yet some persons of theyr 
natures unquietly disposed, desyrous to change, and therefore redy 
to fynde fault with al wel established orders, do not only refrayne 
from comming to the Church where the diuine seruice and common 
prayer is o[r]derly used, but also do use of theyr owne deuisee 
other rites and ceremonies then are by the lawes of the Realms 
receiued and used : and besydes that some of them haue rashly set 
foorth and by stealth imprinted certayne bookes under the tide of 
Afi Admoniiio7i to the Parliamejit and one other in defence of the 
sayde Admonition the whiche bookes do tende to no other ende 
but to make diuision and dissention in the opinions of men and to 
breede talkes and disputes agaynst common order. Her highnesse 
therefore, both to represse such insolent and inordinate contemptes 
of such as refuse to come to common prayer and diuine seruice 
according to the order established by Parliament, to the euil and 
pernitious example of others and to kepe her subiectes in one 

^ Dyson, Proclamations. (Brit. Mus. G. 6463.) 


uniforme godly and quiet order within her Realme, to auoyde al 
controuersies scismes and dissentions that may aryse : doth 
strayghtly charge and command al her Maiesties faythful and true 
subiectes them selues to kepe and to cause others suche as be under 
them to kepe the order of common prayer diuine seruices and 
administration of the Sacramentes accordyng as in the sayde booke 
of diuine seruice they be set foorth, and none other contrary or 
repugnant, upon payne of her highnesse indignation and of other 
paynes in the sayd acte comprysed. 

And as concerning the said bookes called The Admonition to the 
Parliament and al other bookes made for the defence of the sayd 
Admonition or agreeable therewith, the whiche bookes do cheefely 
tende to the deprauyng and fyndyng fault with the sayde Booke of 
Conwion Prayer and administration of the Sacramentes and of the 
orders receiued here in this Churche and common wealth of 
Englande. Her highnesse strayghtly chargeth and commaundeth 
al and euery Printer Stationer Booke bynder Marchaunt and al 
other men of what qualilie or condition he or they be who hath in 
theyr custodie any of the sayd bookes to bring in the same to the 
Byshop of the diocesse or to one of her hyghnesse priuie Counsel 
within twentie dayes after that he shall haue notice of this 
Proclamation, and not to kepe any of them without licence or 
allowance of the sayde Byshop, upon payne of imprysonment and 
her highnesse farther displeasure 

Geuen at our Manour of Greenewiche, the xi day of June. 1573. 
the fyfteenth yere of our raigne 

God saue the Queene. 

V. Sandys to Burghley^. 

I thoughte it my dutie to aduertise your L that althoughe the 
date of the late proclamation for bringinge in of the Admonition 
to the parlament and other sediciouse bokes is alredy expired, yet 
the whole Citie of London wheare no dowt is greate plentie, hath 
not brought one to my hands, and I can hardly think that the 
Lords of hir Maiesties Priuy Counsell have receyved many. 
Whearby it may easely appeare what boldenesse and disobedience 
theis new writers haue alredy wrought in the mynds of the people 
and that agaynst the Ciuill Magistrate whome in words they seme 
to extoll but whose authoritie in very dede they labor to caste 
downe. For he seeth litill that doth not perceyue how that their 
whole proceedinges tend to a mere popularitie. The Articles 
which your L deliuered to the Archbishop of Cant are as 
common in London in the Inns of Court and ells wheare as is 
ergo in the schooles, and as I heare they were abrode before that 
they came out your L hands. I trust that your L will remember 

* Lansd. MS. xvii. 37. 


Mr Mullyns who of long time hath bene sore burdyned with 
unthankfull guests. If it wold please the LL of the Counsell 
to give authoritie to the Master of the Rolls the Attorney Generall 
or to some other to examine the matter I could soon fynd owt the 
writer of the infamous libell which was cast agaynst me, but this 
I seke not in respect of my self but as it may seme good for the 
Commonwelth. Thus I humbly take my leaue of your good 
L commendinge the same to the good direction of Godds holy 

At Ful am this Julij 2. 1573 

Your L at command 
Ed. London 
Endorsed: To the right honorable my singuler good Lorde the 
Lord of Burghley Highe Treasurer of Englande. 

VL Sandys to Burghley ^ 

Aug. 28. 1573. 

In my former letters I remembered unto your L part of 
the disorders of this tyme and pray'd the ayde of authoritie for 
repressing of the same. Synce that tyme I have caused to be 
found forth and taken in the country a printing presse with the 
whole furniture ; the prynter called Lacy with certan others of that 
confederacy are also apprehended. They have printed Cartwright's 
book again in a fair print to the number of 1000 as Lacy voluntarily 
confesseth. How stubborne maliciouse these men be contemning all 
authoritie I leaue it to the report of Mr D Wilson who cann fully 
inform your L. What further is to be done in this mattir I expect 
your pleasure. Ciuill authoritie must deale in this matter or it will 
not be well done. The new Masters authors of these trobles live in 
great jolitie having great access unto theym boasting theymselues 
spitefully rayling not only agaynst particular men but also agaynst 
the whole state. If they were set at libertie they coulde do less 
harme. . . . 

' Lansd. MS. xvii. 45. 





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